Mobility and Transport

Clean transport, Urban transport

Noise hindrance indicator

Noise hindrance indicator


Hindrance of population by noise generated through urban transport.


Percentage of population hindered by urban transport noise, based on hindrance factors for noise exposure data of population by noise bands.

Indicator fomula

NI = Noise hindrance index [% of population]
i = Average noise Lden of noise band [#]
Pim = Population exposed to noise band i for mode m (road, rail, airplane) [#]
Wim = High Annoyance weight factor for mode m and noise band i [%]
HFLDeni = Hindrance factor at average Ldeni of the related noise band i
LDen= Average sound pressure level over all days, evenings and nights in a year (in this compound indicator the evening value gets a penalty of 5 dB and the night value of 10 dB).

Data sources

Information needed

Possible specific sources


Advice to fill data gaps and/ or improve data quality

Number of people exposed to different noise bands related to major roads

The input data required to estimate the indicator is related to population exposed to noise by band for each transport mode (road, rail, aviation). Data is available for about 500 urban agglomerations on the EEA website, END's noise map data: the most recent link is:


  • It is recommended to use this data, if available for the urban area, in order to keep the consistency between the different urban areas. Data is currently available for the year 2017 (and/or 2012). Please note that for some urban agglomerations data for 2017 is not available (yet), but data for 2012 is reported.
  • In case of missing information from EEA website, available noise mapping data at urban level could be used. A GIS-based calculation of how many inhabitants is directly affected by high noise levels should therefore be feasible or already available (please note that this requires data on distribution of population at street number level in the urban area).
  • Please note that national/ local data could also exist and taken into account.

Number of people exposed to different noise bands related to major railways

Number of people exposed to different noise bands related to major airports

* The column “Costs” provides a qualitative assessment of the budget (staff costs, time, costs for data acquisition, etc.) needed by a city/ urban area for gathering new quantitative data in absence of already available values. For each parameter, the assessment takes into account both the administrative costs and the costs related to searching, acquisition and processing of the needed data; these can be high (“H”), medium (“M”) or low (“L”), or a combination of a pair of them.