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Trade and investment relations between the EU and Morocco are intense: the EU is Morocco’s leading trade partner, and Morocco is the EU’s biggest trade partner among the Southern Neighbourhood (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine*, Syria and Tunisia). The EU is also the biggest foreign investor in Morocco, accounting for more than half of the country’s FDI stock.

Trade picture

  • Morocco is the EU’s 20th biggest trade partner, representing 1% of the EU’s total trade in goods with the world in 2020. Morocco is the EU’s biggest trade partner among the  Southern Neighbourhood countries, with 25% of total EU trade in goods with the region.
  • The EU is Morocco's largest trade partner, accounting for 56% of its goods trade in 2019. 64% of Morocco's exports went to the EU, and 51% of Morocco's imports came from the EU.
  • Total trade in goods between the EU and Morocco in 2020 amounted to €35.3 billion. The EU's imports from Morocco amounted to €15.2 billion, were led by electrical machinery and transport equipment (€6.1 billion, 40.8%), agri-food (€2.5 billion, 16.2%), and textiles and clothing (€2.3 billion, 15.1%). The EU's exports to Morocco amounted to €20.1 billion. Exports were  led by electrical machinery and transport equipment (€4.7 billion, 23.5%), followed by chemicals (€2.2 billion, 10.8%), fuel and petroleum products (€1.9 billion, 9.4%), agri-food (€2.2 billion, 9.3%), and textiles and clothing (€1.4 billion, 7.1%).
  • Two-way trade in services amounted to €10.7 billion in 2019. EU imports of services represented €6 billion and exports amounted to €4.7 billion.

EU-Morocco: Trade in goods

Trade in goods 2018-2020, € billions
Year EU imports EU exports Balance
2018 15.4 22.5 7.1
2019 16.3 23.3 7.0
2020 15.2 20.1 4.9

EU-Morocco: Trade in services

Trade in services 2017-2019, € billions
Year EU imports EU exports Balance
2017 5.7 4.0 -1.6
2018 5.4 4.4 -1.0
2019 6.0 4.7 -1.3

EU-Morocco: Foreign direct investment

Foreign direct investment 2019, € billions
Year Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance
2019 1.8 17.6 15.8

Unless otherwise mentioned “EU” concerns for all indicated years the current European Union of 27 Member States.

Date of retrieval: 12/04/2021

More statistics on Morocco

EU and Morocco

The EU and Morocco established a Free Trade Area as part of the EU-Morocco Association Agreement, signed in 1996, which entered into force on 1 March 2000. The EU and Morocco also signed an Agreement on additional liberalisation of trade in agricultural products, processed agricultural products, and fish and fisheries products, which entered into force in October 2012. Trade in industrial products is entirely liberalised, while market opening for agricultural products is also substantial. Both parties agreed upon a protocol establishing a Dispute Settlement Mechanism, which entered into force in 2012.

Negotiations for a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) started in 2013. A Sustainability Impact Assessment carried out by an independent contractor accompanied the launch of negotiations. The last negotiating round was held in April 2014, after which negotiations were put on hold at Morocco’s request.

An Amendment of the protocols of the EU-Morocco Association Agreement, which extended the tariff preferences laid down in the Association Agreement to products originating in Western Sahara, entered into force on 19 July 2019. In December 2020, the European Commission published a Staff Working Document on the implementation of the agreement. The report demonstrated that the agreement is being implemented smoothly and that it is delivering benefits for Western Sahara and its population in terms of exports, economic activity and employment.

In 2021, under the new EU Trade Policy Review, the EU has offered to discuss modernising trade and investment relations with Morocco, to better adapt them to today’s challenges. 

Morocco in the Southern Neighbourhood

The EU established its privileged partnership with the Eastern and Southern shores of the Mediterranean back in 1995 with the launch of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership at the Barcelona Conference, aiming to establish an area of peace, stability and economic prosperity that upholds democratic values and human rights.

The 25th anniversary of the Barcelona Process in November 2020 was an opportunity to reflect on the strategic partnership with the region in light of the political, socioeconomic, financial and environmental challenges exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, and to reassess the EU’s partnership with Morocco and the other Southern Neighbourhood partner countries. Following consultations with partners, this reflection resulted in a Joint Communication by the European Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy on ‘A renewed partnership with the Southern Neighbourhood – A new Agenda for the Mediterranean’ and the annexed ‘Economic and Investment Plan for the Southern Neighbours’ in February 2021.

More information on the Southern Neighbourhood

In 2004, Morocco signed the Agadir Agreement with Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia. The agreement committed all parties to removing all tariffs on trade between them and to harmonise their legislation with regard to standards and customs procedures. The Agadir Agreement entered into force in July 2006, and an Agadir Technical Unit in Amman ensures its implementation. Lebanon and Palestine joined the Agreement in 2020.

More information on the Agadir Agreement

The impact of trade component of the EU’s Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement with Morocco was assessed in the Ex-Post Evaluation of Trade Chapters of the Six Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements with the EU’s Southern Neighbours (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia), which was published by the European Commission in 2021.

The pan-Euro-Mediterranean cumulation and the PEM Convention on rules of origin

The pan-Euro-Mediterranean cumulation system of origin was created in 2005. It brings together the EU, Morocco, and other partners in Europe and the Mediterranean to support regional integration by creating a common system of rules of origin. Rules of origin are technical criteria which determine whether a specific product qualifies for duty-free or other preferential access under a given trade agreement.

Cumulation of origin means a product coming from one partner country can be processed or added to a product of a second partner country and still be considered an ‘originating product’ of that second partner country for the purposes of a particular trade agreement.

The pan-Euro-Mediterranean system allows for diagonal cumulation (i.e. cumulation between two or more countries) between the EU, EFTA countries, Turkey, the Western Balkans, the Faroe Islands, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia and any country that signed the Barcelona Declaration of 1995. The system was originally based on a network of Free Trade Agreements with identical origin protocols.

These individual origin protocols are being progressively replaced by a reference to the Regional Convention on pan-Euro-Mediterranean preferential rules of origin (PEM Convention), which was established in 2011 to provide a more unified framework for origin protocols. Morocco acceded to the Regional Convention on 18 April 2012.

More information on Mediterranean preferential Rules of Origin

Trading with Morocco

* This designation shall not be construed as recognition of a State of Palestine and is without prejudice to the individual positions of the Member States on this issue.