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The Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) governs trade and economic relations between the EU and Kazakhstan. The agreement was signed in 2015 and entered into provisional application on 1 May 2016. After ratification by all Member States, the agreement entered into force on 1st of March 2020.

The EPCA replaces the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, signed in 1995 and which entered into force in 1999.

The EU Strategy for Central Asia is also an important framework for relations between the EU and Kazakhstan. A revision of the EU Strategy for Central Asia is planned to be completed in 2019.

Trade picture

  • Kazakhstan’s is the EU’s 33rd biggest trade partner, representing 0.7% of the EU’s total trade in goods with the world in 2020.
  • The EU is Kazakhstan's biggest trade partner, accounting for 29.7% of the country’s total trade in goods in 2020. 16.1% of Kazakhstan’s imports came from the EU and 41.0% of its exports went to the EU.
  • Total trade in goods between the EU and Kazakhstan in 2020 amounted to €18.6 billion. The EU’s imports were worth €12.6 billion. They were dominated by mostly fuel and mining products (€11.8 billion, 93.7%). The EU’s exports totalled €6.0 billion and were led by machinery and transport equipment (€2.9 billion, 48.3%), chemicals (€1.6 billion, 26.7%) and other manufactures (€0.5 billion, 8.3%).
  • Two-way trade in services in 2019 amounted to €2.4 billion, with EU’s imports of services representing €0.9 billion and exports €1.5 billion.
  • Kazakhstan has benefited from strong foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in recent years, largely due to its oil and gas sector. In 2019, total EU FDI outward stock represented €63.9 billion.

EU-Kazakhstan: Trade in goods

Trade in goods 2018-2020, € billions
Year EU imports EU exports Balance
2018 20.2 5.5 -14.7
2019 18.4 5.9 -12.5
2020 12.6 6.0 -6.6

EU-Kazakhstan: Trade in services

Trade in services 2017-2019, € billions
Year EU imports EU exports Balance
2017 0.9 1.2 0.4
2018 1.0 1.4 0.4
2019 0.9 1.5 0.6

EU-Kazakhstan: Foreign direct investment

Foreign direct investment 2019, € billions
Year Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance
2019 5.0 63.9 58.9

Unless otherwise mentioned “EU” concerns for all indicated years the current European Union of 27 Member States.

Date of retrieval: 12/04/2021

More statistics on Kazakhstan

EU and Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is the first Central Asian partner to have concluded an EPCA with the EU. The agreement creates a better regulatory environment for businesses in areas such as:

  • trade in services
  • establishment and operation of companies
  • capital movements
  • raw materials and energy
  • government procurement
  • intellectual property rights

Since the expiry of the EC-Kazakhstan steel agreement at the end of 2006, the bilateral trade in steel has been based on ‘autonomous measures.’ These measures allow free entry of products into the EU without customs duties or quantitative restrictions, with some exceptions. A new agreement will replace these measures once signed.

Committees and Dialogues

The EU and Kazakhstan meet regularly to discuss issues and best practices when applying the EPCA Agreement.

Cooperation Committee on Trade Configuration

Trading with Kazakhstan