Taxation and Customs Union

Fair Taxation of the Digital Economy

Fair taxation of the digital economy

On 21 March 2018, the European Commission proposed new rules to ensure that digital business activities are taxed in a fair and growth-friendly way in the EU.

 

Why do we need new rules for the taxation of the digital economy?


Today's international corporate tax rules are not fit for the realities of the modern global economy and do not capture business models that can make profit from digital services in a country without being physically present.

Current tax rules also fail to recognise the new ways in which profits are created in the digital world, in particular the role that users play in generating value for digital companies.

As a result, there is a disconnect – or ‘mismatch’ - between where value is created and where taxes are paid.

 


Value Creation in the Digital Economy

In the digital economy, value is often created from a combination of algorithms, user data, sales functions and knowledge. For example, a user contributes to value creation by sharing his/her preferences (e.g. liking a page) on a social media forum. This data will later be used and monetised for targeted advertising. The profits are not necessarily taxed in the country of the user (and viewer of the advert), but rather in the country where the advertising algorithms has been developed, for example. This means that the user contribution to the profits is not taken into account when the company is taxed.


 

What is the Commission proposing?

The Commission has made two legislative proposals:

  • The first initiative aims to reform corporate tax rules so that profits are registered and taxed where businesses have significant interaction with users through digital channels. This forms the Commission's preferred long-term solution.
     
  • The second proposal responds to calls from several Member States for an interim tax which covers the main digital activities that currently escape tax altogether in the EU.

 

Proposal 1: A common reform of the EU's corporate tax rules for digital activities

This proposal would enable Member States to tax profits that are generated in their territory, even if a company does not have a physical presence there. The new rules would ensure that online businesses contribute to public finances at the same level as traditional 'brick-and-mortar' companies.

A digital platform will be deemed to have a taxable 'digital presence' or a virtual permanent establishment in a Member State if it fulfils one of the following criteria:

  •  It exceeds a threshold of €7 million in annual revenues in a Member State
  • It has more than 100,000 users in a Member State in a taxable year
  • Over 3000 business contracts for digital services are created between the company and business users in a taxable year.

The new rules will also change how profits are allocated to Member States in a way which better reflects how companies can create value online: for example, depending on where the user is based at the time of consumption.

Ultimately, the new system secures a real link between where digital profits are made and where they are taxed.

The measure could eventually be integrated into the scope of the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) – the Commission's already proposed initiative for allocating profits of large multinational groups in a way which better reflects where the value is created.

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Fair taxation for the digital economy


Proposal 2: An interim tax on certain revenue from digital activities

This interim tax ensures that those activities which are currently not effectively taxed would begin to generate immediate revenues for Member States.

It would also help to avoid unilateral measures to tax digital activities in certain Member States which could lead to a patchwork of national responses which would be damaging for our Single Market.

Unlike the common EU reform of the underlying tax rules, this indirect tax would apply to revenues created from certain digital activities which escape the current tax framework entirely.

This system will apply only as an interim measure, until the comprehensive reform has been implemented and has inbuilt mechanisms to alleviate the possibility of double taxation.

The tax will apply to revenues created from activities where users play a major role in value creation and which are the hardest to capture with current tax rules, such as those revenues:

  • created from selling online advertising space
  • created from digital intermediary activities which allow users to interact with other users and which can facilitate the sale of goods and services between them
  • created from the sale of data generated from user-provided information.

Tax revenues would be collected by the Member States where the users are located, and will only apply to companies with total annual worldwide revenues of €750 million and EU revenues of €50 million.

This will help to ensure that smaller start-ups and scale-up businesses remain unburdened. An estimated €5 billion in revenues a year could be generated for Member States if the tax is applied at a rate of 3%.

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More detailed information in the Question and Answer document.

Next Steps

The legislative proposals will be submitted to the Council for adoption and to the European Parliament for consultation. The EU will also continue to actively contribute to the global discussions on digital taxation within the G20/OECD, and push for ambitious international solutions.

Background information and related links