Social security coordination regulations
EU provisions on the coordination of social security schemes have existed since Regulations No 3 and 4 of 1958. They have been updated and extended many times.
The last revision applies in the EU since 1 May 2010. It includes the following consolidated regulations:
These texts include the modifications to Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 and Regulation (EC) No 987/2009 made by Regulation (EC) No 988/2009, Commission Regulation (EU) No 1244/2010, Regulation (EU) No 465/2012 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1224/2012.
It is the first major reform since the 1970s regulations, which were applicable for several decades:
To go through the articles of the above pieces of legislation and find related CJEU case law, you can explore the Social Security Coordination Regulations database.
Nationals of non-EU countries
Since 1 January 2011, Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010 extends EU social security coordination rules to nationals of non-EU countries (third-country nationals) legally resident in the EU and in a cross-border situation. Their family members and survivors are also covered if they are in the EU.
It does not apply to Denmark.
Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010 will be a source of rights, for example, in the case of a third-country national who has moved from one EU country to another for work, but whose children have stayed in the previous EU country.
EU social security coordination rules apply in relation to Switzerland as from 1 April 2012.
- Annex II to the Agreement between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the Swiss Confederation, of the other, on the free movement of persons, as updated by Decision No 1/2012 of the Joint Committee established by that agreement
The EEA (European Economic Area)
EU social security coordination rules apply in relation to Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein (EEA countries) as from 1 June 2012.
- Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 165/2012 of 28 September 2012 amending Annex VI (Social security) to the EEA Agreement
The United Kingdom
EU rules on social security coordination no longer apply to and in the United Kingdom as of 1 January 2021. However, the rights of persons covered by the Withdrawal Agreement concluded between the EU and the United Kingdom continue to be protected.
For persons not covered by the Withdrawal Agreement, social security coordination between the EU and the United Kingdom is regulated by the relevant Protocol to the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. While similar to EU rules and comprehensive in scope, the Protocol does not provide for an identical level of protection as the EU Regulations.
European Labour Authority (ELA)
In July 2019, the European Labour Authority (ELA) was established to help Member States and the European Commission to ensure that EU rules on labour mobility and social security coordination are enforced in a fairand effective way. ELA also has an important role to play in facilitating and ensuring effective labour mobility in Europe.