Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion

Access to affordable quality services

Put in place mechanisms that promote children’s participation in decision making that affect their lives

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    1. AKTION GLASKLAR

    Germany, 2006 - still operating

    Aktion Glasklar is an intervention program to combat youth drinking in Germany. It was first implemented in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in early 2006 and has since been continued under the leadership of Deutsche Angestellten Krankenkasse (DAK) all throughout Germany. The focus of the program is to interact with students and to actively deter them from consuming alcohol at a young age.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    2. Classroom-based cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent anxiety (FRIENDS programme)

    United Kingdom, 2011 - Still operating

    The FRIENDS protocol is designed to be delivered in both clinical and educational settings by teachers, psychologists, and allied health professionals. The programme is a manualised cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention. It is based on the principles of CBT and aims to help children develop skills to counter the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of anxiety. It seeks to teach children to develop emotional awareness and regulation skills, identify and replace cognitions that increase anxiety with more balanced and functional ways of thinking, and to develop problem-solving skills to confront and cope with situations and events that provoke anxiety.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    3. Curriculum-based Anti-bullying Programme

    Greece, 2003 - Still operating

    The practice described here is an anti-bullying intervention based on a set of curricular activities embedded within the wider curriculum. The curriculum is well planned with 3 axes: awareness raising; self-reflection and the all-important commitment to new behaviours. The intervention project was developed in response to the problem of bullying at schools. The main aims of the programme were to i) decrease overall bullying and victimization ii) enhance the number of children helping the victims in bullying (defenders) and reduce the number of children who remain separate from the bullying situation (outsiders) and iii) to enhance students’ self-efficacy beliefs for intervening and iv) to promote positive interactions with peers. The programme was implemented in 13 different classrooms from fourth- to sixth-grade across 10 primary schools in Greece. The core of the programme consisted of eight instructional hours implemented over a one-month period. The practice was developed by the researchers and it was implemented by school teachers who received specific after-school training from the researchers. All teachers who were willing to participate received the training. The training was delivered with the expectation to engage teachers in the programme and raise their knowledge about implementing particular anti-bullying curricular activities. There are no available materials that document the teacher training, the eight curricular activities, and the programme implementation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was not evaluated. The programme was implemented in the school year 2003-04. There is no information on whether the intervention or something similar was implemented again.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    4. Disordered Eating Prevention Programme

    Spain, 2012  - 2014

    This programme was implemented in 13 publicly funded schools in Terrassa, a city in the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for students aged 13. The programme consisted of one 90 minute ML session discussing media literacy, critical thinking about the feminine Aesthetic-Beauty Model of extreme thinness, and awareness of historical, cross-cultural and media conceptions of beauty. Some classes also participated in a 90 minute NUT session discussing nutrition and balanced eating. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    5. Education Maintenance Allowance

    United Kingdom, 1999 - still operating

    The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) is a means-tested conditional cash transfer programme which pays a cash benefit to each student in families with annual incomes of £30,000 or below who remain in school beyond age 16. The programme is intended to encourage participation in full-time education.  

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    6. European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial (EU-Dap)

    Belgium, Greece, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, 2003 - still operating

    The European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial (EU-Dap) is an experimental evaluation of a school-based drug abuse prevention programme conducted in seven EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Sweden).

    The programme, Unplugged, uses a comprehensive social-influence approach to reduce use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among 12-14 year old students. In the literature, this approach has been repeatedly shown to “reduce onset of use or significantly reduce cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana consumption” among young people (Sussman 2004). Specifically, the Unplugged programme consists of 12 one-hour units taught by classroom teachers who have previously received a 2.5 day training course on the programme material.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    7. FearNot!: a computer based anti-bulling programme designed to foster peer intervention

    United Kingdom, Germany, 2007 - Unknown

    The practice FearNot! is a virtual learning anti-bullying intervention. The main aim of the practice is to help victims escape victimization, reduce overall bullying by reducing the number of bullies and at the same time increase the number of new defenders.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    8. Functional Family Therapy

    Belgium, Ireland, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, 2007 - still operating

    Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based treatment based on recognition of risk and protective factors involved in the development of conduct problems by children and teenagers. It was founded in the 1970s by James F. Alexander and other researchers at the University of Utah, U.S. FFT is a relatively inexpensive three-phased approach drawing on a multisystemic perspective, starting with engagement and motivation phase aimed at enhancing the perception that change is possible, followed by behaviour change phase improving communication within family and parent behaviour, and concluding by generalisation phase, in which the family learns to utilise the new skills in other situations. The effectiveness of FFT is fairly well established in the U.S. where the treatment led to reduction in typical recidivism rates by 20-30 percent compared to control groups.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    9. Gesunde Kitas – starke Kinder

    Germany, 2008 - still operating

    The gesunde KITAs – starke Kinder, or Healthy Nursery Centers - Strong Children program’s goal is to fight the childhood obesity epidemic in Germany by prevention, particularly among pre-school children. In order to do so, the programme teaches children a mix of balanced nutrition, movement, and relaxation, and also fosters an ongoing health dialogue with parents. As opposed to previous anti-obesity programmes, Healthy Nurseries puts a strong emphasis on ex-ante prevention and teaching of a healthy way of living, by connecting and integrating the four project components outlined above. After an initial introductory phase of 12-15 months, the components become part of the center’s daily routine. Final implementation is at the discretion of the programme staff at a particular site.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    10. Kiva Antibullying Programme

    Finland, 2007 - still operating

    The KiVa programme is a school-wide approach to decreasing the incidence and negative effects of bullying on student well-being at school.  The programme’s impact is measured through self and peer-rated reports of bullying, victimization, defending victims, feeling empathy towards victims, bystanders reinforcing bullying behaviour, anxiety, self-esteem, depression, liking school, and academic motivation and performance, among other factors.  The programme is based on the idea that how peer bystanders behave when witnessing bullying plays a critical role in perpetuating or ending the incident.  As a result, the intervention is designed to modify peer attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of bullying.  The programme specifically encourages students to support victimised peers rather than embolden bullying behaviour and, furthermore, provides teachers and parents with information about how to prevent and address the incidence of bullying.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    11. New forest parenting programme

    United Kingdom, 1995 - still operating

    The New Forest Parenting Programme offers training for parents of children under the age of 3 exhibiting ADHD symptoms. The programme consists of 8 weekly two-hour, one-on-one in-home training sessions for parents to learn about ADHD and how to manage their child’s behaviour. Half of the sessions are for the parent and child together and the rest are for the parent alone.  The programme was originally developed and implemented in Southampton, United Kingdom.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    12. North Karelia Youth Project

    Finland, 1978 - still operating

    The North Karelia Youth Project offered a community and school-based educational intervention for seventh graders (students aged 13) to decrease the social desirability of smoking and coach them to resist peer, adult, and media pressure to smoke. The goal of the programme was to decrease the number of children who would start smoking for the first time and reduce all the lifetime exposure to tobacco for all children in the programme area. Two versions of the intervention were each implemented at an urban and a rural school in North Karelia County in Finland.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    13. Prevention of Smoking in adolescents with Lower Education

    Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

    This intervention was based on peer group pressure and social influence to prevent smoking.  The intervention is similar to the Smokefree Class Competition programme implemented across 22 European countries. The authors added some lessons on attitude and social influence. The Dutch National Institute against Smoking (Stivoro) and The Dutch National Institute on mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute) developed and conducted the intervention together with the schools. Stivoro looked at the adherence of schools to the intervention protocol, and collected the registration forms and other documents.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    14. Raising the Achievement of Bilingual Learners in Primary Schools

    United Kingdom, 2004 - Still operating

    The practice was implemented in primary schools across the UK and consists in embedding and strengthening well-established English as Additional Language (EAL) pedagogy with the aim of raising achievement of bilingual learners, and increasing teacher confidence in meeting the needs of bilingual pupils. The practice consists of a wide range of teaching approaches that can be tailored to the needs of the school or teacher. It is not a new practice, although it is innovative in emphasising certain existing elements of EAL practice which are not common, such as enabling children to use their first language to learn.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    15. School-based Alcohol Education Programme

    Germany, 2006 -

    The school-based alcohol education was designed to change knowledge, attitudes and intentions toward underage alcohol use and abuse in middle school students. The programme was implemented in seventh grade classes of students between 12 and 15 years old at 16 secondary schools near Hamburg in the Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany in 2006. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    16. Social Influence Decision-Making Smoking Prevention Programme

    Netherlands, 1990  - 2013

    The Social Influence Decision-Making (SI-DM) smoking prevention programme was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself.  The programme aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.  

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    17. Social Influence Plus Boosters Smoking Prevention Programme

    Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

    The Social Influence Plus Boosters (SI+) smoking prevention programme was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself. The programme aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking. 

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    18. Social Influence Smoking Prevention Programme

    Netherlands, Romania, 1990  - 2013

    The Social Influence (SI) smoking prevention programme was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself. The programme aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    19. SolSano

    Spain, 1999 - still operating

    SolSano is a health education programme for sun safety implemented in primary schools in Spain. The programme has been in operation since 1999. It targets children in grades 1 and 2 (aged 6-8). The overall aim of the programme is to educate children about sun safety in order to teach children to enjoy the sun while reducing its harmful effects. The programme consists of a guide for teachers, an activity notebook for students, and a pamphlet with information on sun protection activities for children directed to their parents.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    20. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)

    United Kingdom, 2011 - Still operating

    Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP) is a universal school-based intervention aiming to reduce alcohol use by adolescents – in particular, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related harms. The programme consists of a ten-lesson classroom-based curriculum and an information session for parents and carers, followed by information leaflets.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    21. Sun Healthy Habits

    Spain, 2009  - 2009

    The ‘Sun healthy habits’ study aimed to evaluate the effects of using an Internet-based school intervention programme to improve sun exposure knowledge and behaviour among Spanish adolescent population. The ‘Sun healthy habits’ website was developed by the Study Committee (dermatologists, epidemiologists and specialists in education) and was structured in six sections: (i) the sun and its characteristics; (ii) sun without danger; (iii) seven sun commandments; (iv) games; (v) visits to other Webs and (vi) Who are we? The selection of content was informed by knowledge gained in a previously conducted cross-sectional study on incorrect sun habits in the population.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    22. Talk About Alcohol

    United Kingdom, 2010- still operating

    Talk About Alcohol is an intervention developed in the UK for helping children age 11-18 make informed decisions about alcohol.  It carries the same name as a pilot website developed in 2005 by the European Association of Communication Agencies (EACA) with the European Forum for Responsible Drinking), which was based on a programme originally developed in Sweden, however the UK Talk About Alcohol programme, developed by The Alcohol Education trust Charity is fundamentally different from the European initiative.  The programme is inspired by SHARHP (Australia) and EUDAP Unplugged (EU), social norms approaches and life skills education. Talk About Alcohol is provided through schools in the United Kingdom by the Alcohol Education Trust, who support teachers, students, and their parents with resources on line and in print. 

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    23. Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents

    Norway, United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

    The Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO-A, formerly named Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC), known as the Intensive Fostering programme in England, is designed for youth age 10-17 who are at risk of going into residential care or being incarcerated due to their serious emotional or behavioural problems. The TFCO-A programme consists of a daily routine of positive reinforcement through mentoring and encouragement within a clear structure, specified boundaries and consequences for behaviour, and close supervision. 

    The programme model was first implemented in Oregon in the USA in 1983 by Patricia Chamberlain, and it is currently also operating in the UK since 2002, Sweden since 2001, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands since the early-mid 2000’s. The programme founders are incorporated as TFC Consultants, Inc.  

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    24. Örebro Prevention Programme

    Sweden, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

    The Örebro Prevention Programme (currently known as EFFEKT) works through parents and by targeting drinking among 13–16-year-olds (i.e. Junior high school pupils in grades 7–9). The 2.5-year programme, which was designed in Örebro County, Sweden, has been funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This has been part of its initiative for universal youth alcohol prevention programmes, which are to be implemented community-wide; target youths at ages during which drinking increases; work in both urban and rural communities; make use of existing community resources; and bring together different agencies and relevant parties.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  25. Support the participation of all children in play, recreation, sport and cultural activities

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    25. Aprender em Parceria (A PAR)

    Portugal, 2007 - still operating

    The Aprender em Parceria (A PAR) Programme is an early childhood intervention and parenting support programme (complementing crèche or nursery education). A PAR uses parents as a starting point to develop and recognise their own skills and potential, so as to contribute to the process of adult empowerment.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    26. Curriculum-based Anti-bullying Programme

    Greece, 2003 - Still operating

    The practice described here is an anti-bullying intervention based on a set of curricular activities embedded within the wider curriculum. The curriculum is well planned with 3 axes: awareness raising; self-reflection and the all-important commitment to new behaviours. The intervention project was developed in response to the problem of bullying at schools. The main aims of the programme were to i) decrease overall bullying and victimization ii) enhance the number of children helping the victims in bullying (defenders) and reduce the number of children who remain separate from the bullying situation (outsiders) and iii) to enhance students’ self-efficacy beliefs for intervening and iv) to promote positive interactions with peers. The programme was implemented in 13 different classrooms from fourth- to sixth-grade across 10 primary schools in Greece. The core of the programme consisted of eight instructional hours implemented over a one-month period. The practice was developed by the researchers and it was implemented by school teachers who received specific after-school training from the researchers. All teachers who were willing to participate received the training. The training was delivered with the expectation to engage teachers in the programme and raise their knowledge about implementing particular anti-bullying curricular activities. There are no available materials that document the teacher training, the eight curricular activities, and the programme implementation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was not evaluated. The programme was implemented in the school year 2003-04. There is no information on whether the intervention or something similar was implemented again.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  28. List item

    27. Programa Juego

    Spain, 1992 - still operating

    Programa Juego (Play Programme) for preschool children is a cooperative-creative play programme designed to support creative thinking in children 4 to 6 years old.  The programme consists of a once-weekly 75-minute play session which is directed by the children’s regular teacher. During the session, the teacher promotes creative thinking, cooperation among children, and the importance of experimentation. The 24-session programme is manualised with defined games, instructions for the teacher, and suggested questions to promote debate after the games conclude. There are a total of four Play programmes, additionally including the Play programme for children 6-8 years, 8-10 years, and 10-12 years, however only the preschool programme is described here. The programme has been in operation since 1992 in various regions of Spain.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    28. SolSano

    Spain, 1999 - still operating

    SolSano is a health education programme for sun safety implemented in primary schools in Spain. The programme has been in operation since 1999. It targets children in grades 1 and 2 (aged 6-8). The overall aim of the programme is to educate children about sun safety in order to teach children to enjoy the sun while reducing its harmful effects. The programme consists of a guide for teachers, an activity notebook for students, and a pamphlet with information on sun protection activities for children directed to their parents.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


  30. List item

    29. Sun Healthy Habits

    Spain, 2009  - 2009

    The ‘Sun healthy habits’ study aimed to evaluate the effects of using an Internet-based school intervention programme to improve sun exposure knowledge and behaviour among Spanish adolescent population. The ‘Sun healthy habits’ website was developed by the Study Committee (dermatologists, epidemiologists and specialists in education) and was structured in six sections: (i) the sun and its characteristics; (ii) sun without danger; (iii) seven sun commandments; (iv) games; (v) visits to other Webs and (vi) Who are we? The selection of content was informed by knowledge gained in a previously conducted cross-sectional study on incorrect sun habits in the population.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    30. Theraplay

    Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, 1980 - Still operating

    Theraplay is an interactive, directive, short-term, developmental play therapy that emphasises parental involvement through structured, attachment-based play, guided challenge, social engagement, playful regulation of affect, and high levels of nurture. Theraplay relies on four interactive principles: structure by the therapist, social engagement and regulation, nurture and safety, and regulated challenges.

    Evidence level:  Promising Practice


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    31. TigerKids

    Germany, 2014 - still operating

    The ‘‘TigerKids’’ intervention programme was developed to enhance regular physical activity and to modify habits of food and drink consumption in preschool children. The objectives of the programme are threefold: a) to increase physical activity games at the Kindergarten setting to at least 30 min/day; b) to replace high energy density snack foods with fresh fruit and vegetables and establish consumption of at least two portions/day of vegetables and fruits as a habit; c) to replace sugared beverages with water or other non-sugared drinks (e.g. non-sugared fruit tea) in the day care and reaching a habitual consumption of not more than one glass/day of sugared drinks and juices.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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    32. Örebro Prevention Programme

    Sweden, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

    The Örebro Prevention Programme (currently known as EFFEKT) works through parents and by targeting drinking among 13–16-year-olds (i.e. Junior high school pupils in grades 7–9). The 2.5-year programme, which was designed in Örebro County, Sweden, has been funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This has been part of its initiative for universal youth alcohol prevention programmes, which are to be implemented community-wide; target youths at ages during which drinking increases; work in both urban and rural communities; make use of existing community resources; and bring together different agencies and relevant parties.

    Evidence level:  Emergent Practice


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