Science With And For Society (Swafs)

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Gender Equality

Interim Evaluation: Gender equality as a crosscutting issue in Horizon 2020

Publication coverThis report was drafted by the Commission expert group on the interim evaluation of gender as a crosscutting issue in Horizon 2020. This report aims to identify possible improvements in the implementation of gender equality as a crosscutting issue in Horizon 2020. It assists the European Commission in assessing gender equality, and – in particular – the gender dimension in research and innovation content, as a crosscutting issue at the various stages of the implementation of Horizon 2020 from the Work Programme definition to the funded projects. It aims to provide a solid evidence base for designing future activities and initiatives, in particular the preparation of the exante impact assessment of the next Framework Programme for Research and Innovation.

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She Figures 2015

Publication coverThe She Figures 2015 is the 'go-to' document for anyone interested in gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the current state of gender equality in research and innovation in the European Union. In addition to comparable statistics on women and men amongst PhD graduates, researchers and decision-makers, it sheds light on differences in working conditions. It also presents for the first time the situation of men and women in scientific publications and patent applications, as well as the inclusion of the gender dimension in scientific articles

The She Figures was produced in close collaboration between the European Commission, Eurostat, the Helsinki Group on Gender in Research and Innovation and Statistical Correspondents.

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She Figures 2015 - Handbook

Publication coverThe She Figures Handbook provides methodological guidance on the calculation of indicators included in the She Figures 2015 publication. Organised by data source, information provided on each indicator includes a brief definition, rationale, computation method and any comments or critical issues for the reader to note. This handbook is intended to strengthen the capacity of stakeholders to systematically produce meaningful data on gender in research and innovation

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Preliminary results of She Figures 2015

Publication coverThis leaflet presents some initial results of the She Figures 2015 data collection. It provides data on the proportions of women and men amongst top level graduates and researchers. Furthermore it shows preliminary data on women’s representation in decision making roles, such as at the head of universities or as members and leaders of research boards at national level. It also shed light on the commitment to promote gender equality of a subset of Research Performing Organisations (RPOs). The She Figures 2015 Report will be published by the end of the year and uploaded on this e-Library. The cooperation of the Member States, Associated Countries, and colleagues from Eurostat in preparing She Figures is gratefully acknowledged.

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Gender Equality Policies in Public Research

Publication coverThis report is based on a survey among the members of the Helsinki Group, the Commission’s advisory group on gender, research and innova¬tion. It gives a detailed analysis of the current state-of-play of EU Member States’ and associ¬ated countries’ initiatives for promoting gender equality in research and innovation

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Vademecum on Gender Equality in Horizon 2020

Publication coverThe purpose of this Vademecum is to provide the Commission/ Agency staff2, potential applicants, the Helsinki Group, NCPs, as well as experts’ evaluators and other actors involved in the implementation of Horizon 2020 with practical guidance on the effective application of the new Gender Equality provisions. This means integrating Gender Equality issues at each stage of the research cycle: from programming through implementation, monitoring and programme evaluation.

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Gendered Innovations

How gender analysis contributes to research : report of the expert group 'Innovation through gender'

Publication coverOpinion polls suggest that women are less interested in innovation than men. The explanation surely lies elsewhere: do today's innovations really respond adequately to women's needs and expectations? In too many cases they do not. Thirty years of research have revealed that sex and gender bias is socially harmful and expensive. Gender bias also leads to missed market opportunities. Gendered innovations offer sophisticated methods of sex and gender analysis to scientists and engineers. This publication includes case studies as concrete illustrations of how sex and gender analysis lead to new ideas and excellence in research in several fields such as health & medicine, environment & climate change, food & nutrition, transport and technological development

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Structural change in research institutions

Enhancing excellence, gender equality and efficiency in research and innovation

Publication coverThe feminisation of the student population is one of the most striking aspects of the last 30 years. But women are still struggling to progress men in their scientific career. At leadership level, women account for only 18% of full professors and 13% of heads of institutions in the higher education sector. Based on recent scientific findings and research practices, this expert report provides the analysis needed to take action and points to good practices in research institutions which attract and promote women in research and innovation

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  • Structural Changes - Workshop report

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  • Structural Changes - Newsletter

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Gender in EU-funded research


Publication coverEver since the Treaty of Rome, the European Union has consistently advocated gender equality as one of its core policies. Yet the monitoring and assessment studies of FP5 and FP6 have shown that despite the efforts to promote gender in research, women remain under-represented and the issue of gender is far from being systematically addressed in research projects. What’s more, there are sound reasons for the research community to invest in a gender-sensitive research agenda. Investing in equal opportunities for men and women in research makes for teams that perform better and attracts top-level researchers.

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She figures 2012

Gender in research and innovation : statistics and indicators

Publication coverWomen employed as researchers still remain a minority, but are they catching up? Is their distribution throughout different fields of science changing over time? Are women effectively progressing in their careers to achieve top-level positions? Are more women sitting on executive or advisory boards of research organisations? The She Figures 2012 contains the most recent available data on the involvement of women covering the period from tertiary education to employment and their work-life outlook, in the 27 EU Member States and in the associated countries

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Stocktaking 10 years of "women in science" policy by the European Commission 1999-2009

Publication coverTen years ago the European Commission started its activities on "women in science". This Report records this ten-year history, analyses the activities undertaken, provides an assessment of their effectiveness and appropriateness, and - whenever possible - includes a reflection on what did not work, what was not done, and how these omissions could be addressed. The authors believe that this report - a stocktaking of 10 years of activities on "women in science" - will help the European Commission to make decisions on future policy because of the perspective provided by the process of "taking stock". And this report should also help future proposal presenters, providing them with the background to the topic, and the details of previously funded projects, thereby placing the Framework Programme calls into a policy development context

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Preliminary results of She Figures 2012

Publication coverThis leaflet presents some preliminary results of the She Figures 2012 data collection. The She Figures 2012 booklet will be published in December 2012 and uploaded on the DG Research and Innovation Women in Science website. The cooperation of the Member States, Associated Countries, and colleagues from Eurostat in preparing She Figures is gratefully acknowledged.

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Meta-analysis of gender and science research

Synthesis report

Publication coverThis report summarises the main conclusions of the study ‘Meta-analysis of gender and science research’, a project of the 7th RTD Framework Programme of the European Union. Its main objective was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the last thirty years of European research on horizontal and vertical gender segregation in science with a view to steering policymaking and to defining future research priorities in this field. A major output of the study was the creation of the Gender and Science Database (GSD), a unique online resource containing 4,500 European academic publications scanning three decades. Further details can be found on the website of the project, which gives access to the GSD and all the reports produced throughout the study (

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Women and science

Excellence and innovation: gender equality in science

Publication coverThis report submitted at the request of the Research Council of June 2001, gives an overview of women and science actions implemented at European level since the Council Resolution and of the results achieved. The focus of the overview is on the European Commission's activities to promote gender equality in science and the progress made in increasing the participation of women in science in the EU Member States since 1999. The report demonstrates that although some progress has been achieved since the adoption of the previous reports in 1999 and 2001, the situation is still far from satisfactory. With a view to preparing the Seventh Framework Programme, the following challenges need to be addressed if real progress is to be made in achieving gender equality in science

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Mapping the maze

Getting more women to the top in research

Publication coverSince the 1990s, an analysis of senior university staff reveals that women are underrepresented on scientific decision–making boards in almost all European countries. For this reason, the European Commission has invited an independent expert group, namely, the expert group on Women In Research Decision Making (WIRDEM) to identify and review positive actions and gender equality measures at institutional and national level to promote women into senior positions in public research. In the course of one year of fruitful research, the WIRDEM expert group produced the homonymous report which examines and describes in detail nomination procedures, obstacles, facts and funding limitations that women need to overcome in their academic careers. It reviews the procedures for evaluating and promoting research personnel to senior positions and identifies examples of good practice at national and institutional levels. Based on this analysis, the report proposes recommendations to facilitate the design of a framework for better targeted actions at European level, and highlights the problem of poor awareness and visibility. It clearly shows that transparent and fair evaluation and promotion procedures alone are not sufficient to improve gender balance in research decision-making; a change of culture is required. The experts therefore also make suggestions as to how the prevailing scientific culture could change to become more inclusive

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Publication coverof 26 June 2001 on science and society and on women in science (2001/C 199/01)

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Science and society

Action plan

Publication coverThis Action Plan represents a new European initiative to develop a stronger and more harmonious relationship between the world of science and society at large. It sets out 38 actions dealing with the place of science in education and popular culture, involving citizens in science policy, the gender dimension, ethics, and governance. Whilst the European Commission intends to act as a catalysing force, these actions will require a concerted effort by actors in the member states, the regions, stakeholder groups and concerned citizens. The plan provides a common framework to monitor progress and to assess results

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Women in industrial research

A wake up call for European industry

Publication coverA report to the European Commission from the High Level Expert Group on Women in Industrial Research for strategic analysis of specific science and technology policy issues (STRATA)

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Waste of talents

Turning private struggles into a public issue : women and science in the Enwise countries

Publication coverThe Enwise report on the situation facing women scientists in the Central and Eastern European countries and the Baltic States shows thaht women account for 38% of the scientific workforce in these coutries. However this statistic conceals some bitter truths : a large proportion of female scientists are employed in areas where R&D expenditure is lowest. Inadequate resources and poor infrastructure impede the progress of q whole generation of promising scientists. Men are three times more likely to reach senior academic positions than women. In this rather gloomy picture, there is nevertheless a positive sign : wwoemn scientist from the Enwise coutries participate significantly in the European Union's Framework Programme. The report puts forward recommendations to the various istakeholders at European and national level, who can help to enhance the role and place of women scientists from the Enwise coutries in the European Research Area

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Publication coverof 20 May 1999 on women and science (1999/C 201/01)

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Report on Women and science

Publication coverCommittee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality

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Benchmarking policy measures for gender equality in science

Publication coverIn 2002, the Helsinki Group on Women in Science, made of representatives of the Member States and gender experts, published a report on national policies on women in science, which also included the national statistical profiles. The "Benchmarking national policies on gender equality in science" report provides an update on the national policies and on the statistical profiles of the 33 countries represented in the Helsinki Group, and it introduces for the first time data from the Western Balkans. This report builds on the previous one and evaluates the policies and measures with indicators measuring the presence of women in science. It gives an interesting and original overview on the various national situations and tries to develop a European synopsis

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Women and Science

Publication coverMobilising Women to Enrich European Research

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She figures 2009

Publication coverStatistics and indicators on gender equality in science

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  • Corrigendum

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  • Preliminary results of She Figures 2009

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  • She Figures 2006

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  • She Figures 2003

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Gender equality report Sixth Framework Programme

Publication coverIn 1999, the Commission adopted a Communication1 in which, among other commitments, it undertook to develop a coherent approach towards promoting women in research, financed by the European Communities, with the aim of significantly increasing the number of women involved in research during the period of the Fifth Framework Programme. The Commission’s stated aim was to achieve at least a 40% representation of women in Marie Curie scholarships, advisory groups, assessment panels and monitoring panels. This target was subsequently expanded to include all groups, panels, committees and projects involved in the Framework Programme.

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Women in science and technology

Publication coverThe business perspective

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Women in science and technology

Creating sustainable careers

Publication coverFollowing the publication of "Wake-Up Call for European Industry" (EU DG Research, 2003), representatives from companies, universities, and the European Commission's DG Research joined forces in a working group - called Women in Science and Technology (WiST) - to promote gender diversity in the field of science and technology. The activities of this group concluded with the publication of the report "Women in Science and Technology: a Business Perspective" (EU DG Research, 2006). A number of companies expressed interest in continuing activities with gender experts and the European Commission, but with a focus on two new objectives: how to reduce the leaky pipeline for women in science and technology; and how to build a business case for work-life balance. The WiST2 working group was thus established, giving more companies the opportunity to join the group, and at the same time expanding its scope to universities, which is where the leak begins in the "women in science and technology pipeline". This report is the result of the collaborative effort of the working group - it analyses the business case of the work life balance policies that have been adopted by companies in order to stop the leak

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Commission Staff Working Document

Publication coverWomen and Science: Excellence and Innovation - Gender Equality in Science

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Guidelines for Gender Equality Programmes in Science

Publication coverThe European Union has been active in the field of women in science for 10 years now. Since the beginning, we have concentrated on collecting information on the situation of women in European science, and on funding measures that encourage and retain women in science and technology careers. We have had good results in these areas, but a lot has still to be done.

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"Science and/in Society" gender projects

Publication cover

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The gender challenge in research funding

Assessing the European national scenes

Publication coverThe Gender and Excellence expert group was set up to provide recommendations on the improvement of transparency in the procedures used in selection committees for the award of grants and fellowships and in access to research funding in general. This report gives an analysis of the gender dynamics among applicants, recipients and gatekeepers of research funding, in funding processes, instruments and criteria, and the role of key funding organisations in promoting gender equality in research. The analysis was carried out in 33 countries, an overview of which is annexed to the report. These countries could be roughly divided into two groups: proactive countries, which promote and monitor gender equality in research and research funding with active policies and measures, and countries relatively inactive in this area, with few, if any, initiatives. The expert group has not found a large and systematic gender imbalance in terms of success rates in research funding in the funding systems studied, although a few exceptions exist. However, there is a clear difference in application behaviour: women are less likely to apply for funding than men, and this needs further study. To encourage the funding organisations and other stakeholders to take the gender challenge in research funding seriously in practice and take action, this report provides a number of recommendations, flags up some good practices, and outlines future research themes

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Women in science

Publication coverWith this book we would like to celebrate European women scientists throughout the ages. The book tells the compelling stories of some of the heroines of European science – some sung but many unsung – and, through their narratives, it enriches and completes the history of scientific knowledge by highlighting its female face.

Audio-book "Women in science – compelling stories of the heroines of science"


A copy of the country reports provided by the experts in 2008:

Publication cover Austria English  PDF icon 64 KB | Bulgaria English  PDF icon 158 KB | Croatia English  PDF icon 136 KB | Cyprus English  PDF icon 62 KB | Czechia English  PDF icon 163 KB | Denmark English  PDF icon 57 KB | Estonia English  PDF icon 184 KB | France English  PDF icon 77 KB | Germany English  PDF icon 64 KB | Greece English  PDF icon 59 KB | Hungary English  PDF icon 259 KB | Iceland English  PDF icon 100 KB | Ireland English  PDF icon 110 KB | Italy English  PDF icon 142 KB | Israel English  PDF icon 171 KB | Lithuana English  PDF icon 87 KB | Luxembourg English  PDF icon 54 KB | Malta English  PDF icon 55 KB | Nederlands English  PDF icon 149 KB | Norway English  PDF icon 59 KB | Poland English  PDF icon 241 KB | Portugal English  PDF icon 122 KB | Slovakia English  PDF icon 150 KB | Slovenia English  PDF icon 171 KB | Spain English  PDF icon 75 KB | Sweden English  PDF icon 56 KB | Switzerland English  PDF icon 102 KB | Turket English  PDF icon 121 KB | UK English  PDF icon





Publication cover

Vademecum on Gender Equality in Horizon 2020
he purpose of this Vademecum is to provide the Commission/ Agency staff2, potential applicants, the Helsinki Group, NCPs, as well as experts' evaluators and other actors involved in the implementation of Horizon 2020 with practical guidance on the effective application of the new Gender Equality provisions.

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