Most stars today can be found in giant, dead ellipticals which have long been considered by scientists the end of an evolutionary line for galaxies. How these galaxies formed and died so quickly has been an open question. The ConTExt project provides an explanation that is already paving the way to a new generation of astronomical studies.
Scientists are working to understand novel fundamental properties of sound to improve acoustic technologies. The EU-funded PHONOMETA project turned to quantum physics to pioneer a new class of acoustic mesoscopic materials. The research could improve our understanding of sound and also lead to new camouflage technologies.
At low temperatures and high pressures, water behaves strangely, becoming two distinct liquids. With a pioneering use of X-ray lasers, the EU-funded WATER project explored the behaviour of water in this liminal realm. The findings have potential to improve fuel cells and desalination technology, and may even aid the search for life on other planets.
Too much waste ends up in landfill, removing potentially reusable resources from the economy. To address this, the EU-funded VOLATILE project has developed a process for transforming biological waste which can then be used in a range of industries. This could deliver products with real added value for EU citizens, such as biofuel and bioplastics, as well as soap and Omega-3 oils.