Aluepolitiikka ja syrjäisimmät alueet
EU:hun kuuluu yhdeksän syrjäistä aluetta, jotka sijaitsevat hyvin kaukana Euroopan mantereesta.
- Guadeloupe ja Réunion (kaksi Ranskan aluetta)
- Mayotte (yksi Ranskan merentakainen departementti)
- Ranskan Guayana ja Martinique (kaksi Ranskan alueellista yhteisöä)
- Saint-Martin (yksi Ranskan merentakainen yhteisö)
- Madeira ja Azorit (kaksi Portugalin autonomista aluetta)
- Kanariansaaret (yksi Espanjan erillisalue)
Nämä ovat Karibian alueella, Länsi-Atlantilla tai Intian valtamerellä sijaitsevia saaria ja saaristoja tai alueita. Vaikka ne sijaitsevat kaukana Euroopasta, ne ovat erottamaton osa EU:ta. Niiden asukasmäärä on 4,8 miljoonaa, mikä vastaa Irlannin asukaslukua.
Syrjäisiä alueita koskevat kaikki EU:n jäsenyyteen liittyvät oikeudet ja velvollisuudet, paitsi kun sovelletaan erityistoimenpiteitä ja poikkeuksia. SEUT-sopimuksen 349 artiklan mukaisesti näillä erityistoimenpiteillä pyritään vastaamaan syrjäisten alueiden haasteisiin, jotka johtuvat niiden syrjäisestä sijainnista, eristäytyneisyydestä, pienestä koosta, vaikeasta maastosta ja ilmastosta sekä taloudellisesta riippuvuudesta vain muutamaan tuotteeseen.
Syrjäisiä alueita tuetaan koheesiopolitiikan rahoituksella Euroopan aluekehitysrahaston ja Euroopan sosiaalirahaston kautta.
A European Strategy for the Outermost regions
The European Commission has set out strategic orientations in favour of the outermost regions in four Communications (2004, 2008, 2012 and 2017).
The latest Communication of 24 October 2017 (COM (2017) 623 final), A stronger and renewed strategic partnership with the EU's outermost regions, proposes a new approach to provide opportunities and better address the specific needs of each of the nine outermost regions. By encouraging the regions to capitalise on their unique assets, the strategy helps them create new prospects for their people, boosts competitiveness and innovation in key sectors, and deepens their cooperation with neighbouring countries.
The Strategy is based on four pillars:
- Strong partnership: the strategy foresees a closer cooperation between the outermost regions, their respective Member States and the European Commission, establishing a closer dialogue in the shaping and implementation of EU programmes and policies.
- Building on assets: the strategy encourages the outermost regions to make use of their assets through investments in growth-enhancing areas such as blue economy, research, circular economy, space science, responsible tourism, or renewable energy; it also focus on the modernisation of key traditional sectors such as fisheries and agriculture sectors.
- Enabling growth and job creation: with higher unemployment rates, the outermost regions require specific measures to increase employability and skills, in particular amongst young people. The strategy aims to strengthen exchanges in the field of higher education and training and to support the mobility of young professionals.
- Scaling up cooperation: the strategy contributes to deepening the outermost regions’ ties with neighbouring countries by facilitating the uptake of joint projects and initiatives.
The implementation of the 2017 strategy to date
Since the adoption of the 2017 strategy, significant progress has been made in implementing the proposed measures.
- Enshrining OR specificities in the Commission’s proposals for the future EU programmes
In early summer 2018, the European Commission enshrined the specificities of the outermost regions in 21 of its proposals for future EU programmes across a wide range of policies, including cohesion, research, agricultural and fisheries policies.
Under Cohesion Policy, the Commission has proposed that the outermost regions continue receiving an additional allocation and the maximum rate of EU co-financing; and that they can invest EU funds in airports (not allowed in the rest of the EU).
The Commission further proposed that a specific component is set up under the European territorial cooperation goal (‘Interreg’) to promote joint projects with third countries and help these regions integrate better in the parts of the world where they are situated.
The Commission further proposed that EUR 315 million is allocated to support the fisheries sector in the nine regions, including the continuation of a 100 % compensation for their additional costs linked to their specific situation. The financial package earmarked for these regions will also help to develop sustainable fisheries and a sustainable maritime economy and to support small-scale coastal fishermen.
The proposal under Common Agricultural Policy continues to follow the POSEI (Programmes of Options Specifically Relating to Remoteness and Insularity) approach to support farmers in those regions with EUR 627 million per year. Direct payments available to farmers in the outermost regions will remain well above the support levels paid in other parts of the EU.
Further funding is available from the European budget for rural development, supporting biodiversity in agriculture and forestry and promoting the economic development of rural areas. The Commission proposal provides the most advantageous rate of European co-financing for the outermost regions (70 % instead of the 43 % rate granted to the other regions).
In addition, the Commission proposal for the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) foresees that CEF supports transport projects in the outermost regions including maritime ports and urban roads.
The Commission proposal for InvestEU foresees that Member States can transfer part of their shared management resources to this new instrument — particularly in vulnerable and isolated regions such as the outermost regions — in order to access the guarantee provided by the EU budget.
The Erasmus+ and European Solidarity Corps programmes as proposed by the Commission seek to step up the outermost regions’ participation in all the programme measures, in particular cooperation with third countries in the case of Erasmus+.
To help the outermost regions to build on their assets and develop their full potential, the Commission proposed that an initiative to share expertise, 'Sharing Excellence', is open to these regions under the future research and innovation programme, Horizon Europe. Furthermore, some of the programme’s themes correspond to the unique resources of these regions, (i.e. renewable energy, combating climate change, study of tropical diseases, biodiversity and the blue economy) thus encouraging these regions to participate in the programme.
The Digital Europe programme as proposed by the Commission seeks to contribute to greater connectivity and better digital skills in these regions. The new digital innovation hubs, as foreseen under the programme, will help these regions to participate fully in the Digital Single Market.
The Commission further proposed that the environment and climate action programme, LIFE, pay special attention to the outermost regions in its calls for proposals. The programme will support small projects for protecting biodiversity and ecosystems in these regions.
The new Asylum and Migration Fund and the Internal Security Fund will provide the Member States concerned with resources to help these regions to sustainably manage migration and address situations of migratory pressure.
- Other initiatives put forward by the Commission
In November 2018, the Commission further presented a series of concrete measures to promote innovation, circular economy and blue growth.
- Public aid for the purchase of new vessels in the outermost regions
The amended guidelines on public aid for fisheries and aquaculture allow, exceptionally, the purchase of new vessels in the outermost regions, with the possibility of higher assistance rates for small and medium-sized vessels. This decision stems from the need to ensure fleet safety and protect an economic activity that is important to these regions.
- Project FORWARD: to promote research and innovation in the outermost regions
The Commission launched a new coordination and support measure backed by EUR 4.3 million under Horizon 2020, to which the outermost regions responded with the 3 year Project FORWARD. The project will analyse the innovation systems of these regions and mobilise local stakeholders around long-term innovation strategies based on their specific strengths (‘smart specialisation’). Bringing together 24 partners from the nine regions and coordinated by the Canary Islands, the project aims to increase these regions’ capacity to participate in international research projects.
- Better access to the Juncker Plan and flourishing investment projects
With more than EUR 2.2 billion in additional investments mobilised by the European Strategic Investment Fund (EFSI) in the outermost regions, the Juncker Plan confirms its solid foothold across the oceans. The European Investment Advisory Platform (the "Hub") has also formulated recommendations to improve access to finance for small and medium companies in these regions..
- Tailored support from the EU, with the launch of two task forces in Reunion and the Canary Islands.
The Commission can set up, on request of the regions, taskforces to address specific issues, as foreseen in the strategy for the outermost regions. Two examples are the task force on waste management launched in the Canary Islands and the task force on energy transition in the Reunion Island. The task force on waste management brings together Canary companies, the European Commission, the Government of Spain and the regional government, to work together to set up effective waste prevention and recycling systems. The task force for energy transition in the Reunion Island monitors and supports initiatives on the management of energy demand, combats energy poverty, and promotes self-generation of energy and e-mobility.
You will find more information on EU funding in the outermost regions and more examples of the implementation of the strategy in the regional factsheets.
EU policies and financial support for the outermost regions
Between 2014 and 2020, the EU has allocated EUR 13.8 billion to the outermost regions under cohesion policy, agriculture and fisheries. All community policies apply to the outermost regions and should contribute to their development.
Cohesion policy (regional development and employment) helps the outermost regions progress towards the EU 2020 targets; and modernise and diversify their economic activities:
- The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) includes an additional specific allocation to offset the extra costs of the outermost regions linked to their specific constraints.
- The ERDF, the Cohesion Fund (for the Portuguese regions) and the European Social Fund (ESF) are key tools to support investment in the outermost regions.
- Territorial cooperation programmes (INTERREG), co-financed by ERDF, help the outermost regions strengthen their integration with their regional partners. There are six cross-border and transnational programmes devoted to the outermost regions.
In the areas of fisheries and agriculture, the outermost regions also benefit from several specific measures and financial instruments:
- The European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF).
- The European Agricultural Funs for Rural Development (EAFRD).
- The Programme for Options Specifically Relating to Remoteness and Insularity (POSEI).
The outermost regions are also benefiting from a range of European programmes:
- The Horizon 2020 research programme.
- The European programme for SMEs (COSME).
- The EaSi (for employment and social innovation)
- The ERASMUS+ programme (education, training, youth and sport).
On 22-23 November 2018, Commissioner Corina Creţu attended the Conference of Presidents of the Outermost Regions in the Canary Islands. On this occasion the Commissioner presented various new initiatives on the implementation of the EU strategy for the Outermost regions, one year after its adoption. This includes the Outermost Regions' specificities being enshrined in twenty-one proposals for post-2020 European programmes; new rules on state aid to help fishermen in the outermost regions to buy new vessels; new opportunities for research and innovation through a new project under Horizon 2020, called 'FORWARD' ; the implementation of tailor-made solutions through task forces to support the energy transition in Reunion Island or the waste management in Canary Islands.
Smart Regions' story : The Canary Islands
The Canary Islands region had an extremely high unemployment in the past years. The main problem was its isolation. Being located far away in the middle of the ocean, meant they had less opportunities for business activities and economic exchanges then other regions on the mainland. But once they started to see their unique remote location as an opportunity, and started to use the ocean as a new source of energy, the economic recovery kicked in. Now having a scientific and an industrial test site, funded by the EU, offers its users not only data and knowledge on oceanic parameters, but also offers services. This opportunity has been exploited in order to create economic growth and bring the Canary islands to the path of recovery and job creation. As Dominique Foray, from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, explained: "Every region is able to identify some strategic domains where new opportunities can be identified and supported, to build competitive advantage for the future.
Les régions ultrapériphériques: un partenariat renouvelé
- July 2019: Maritime and fisheries forum for the outermost regions (tbc).
- 7-10 October 2019: European Week of Regions and Cities.
- Early 2020: Conference of Presidents of the outermost regions in Saint-Martin.
- Spring 2020: Fifth Forum of the outermost regions.
- 9 May 2019: Citizens’ Dialogue in Madeira
- 18 March 2019: Citizens’ Dialogue in the Azores
- Conference of Presidents of the outermost regions in Las Palmas, Canary Islands (22 and 23 November 2018): Press release, Speech of the Commissioner, Speech of the President of the Conference of Presidents of the Outermost Regions.
- Citizens Dialogue on Education, Las Palmas (21 November 2018).
- “The outermost regions: an opportunity for Europe”, European Week of Regions and Cities in Brussels (11 October 2018). Report, Pictures
- Conference des Presidents, Cayenne 26 and 27 October 2017 - Discours du Président Juncker
- The European Commission hosted the Fourth Forum of the outermost regions entitled "The Outermost Regions, European lands in the world: toward a renewed strategy" in Brussels on 30-31 March 2017 (Charlemagne Building, 170 rue de la Loi). Fourth Forum of the Outermost Regions
Legislation and other measures
- Communication "A stronger and renewed strategic partnership with the EU's outermost regions" - COM(2017) 623 final - Annex "Comprehensive list of actions" - Staff Working Document: Part 1 / Part 2
- Article 349 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
- The outermost regions of the European Union: towards a partnership for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth - COM(2012)287
- The outermost regions: a lasting support from the EU: EN ES FR PT
- The EU strategy for the outermost regions, one year on: EN ES FR PT
- The Juncker plan at work in the outermost regions: EN ES FR PT
Regional factsheets and projects examples
- Canary Islands
- French Guiana
- Saint Martin
- Reunion Island
Programmes ERDF/ESF 2014-2020
- Regional programme Guyane 2014-2020
- Regional programme Martinique 2014-2020
- Regional programme Mayotte 2014-2020
- Regional programme Réunion 2014-2020
- Regional programme Guadeloupe et St Martin 2014-2020
- Regional programme Azores 2014-2020
- Regional programme Madeira 2014-2020
- Regional programme Canarias 2014-2020
- Operational programme Interreg Caraibes 2014-2020
- Operational programme Saint-Martin/Saint-Marteen 2014-2020
- Operational programme Amazonie/Plateau des Guyanes 2014-2020
- Operational programme MAC (Madère – Azores – Canaries)2014-2020
- Operational programme Océan Indien 2014-2020
- Operational programme Mayotte, Comorres, Madagascar 2014-2020
Contributions of the Regions and the Member States
- Declaration of the Presidents of the Outermost Regions (Las Palmas, 22 and 23 November 2018)
- Déclaration des Présidents des Régions Ultrapériques" (Kourou, 26-27 october 2017)
- Position commune des autorités espagnoles, françaises, et portugaises et des neuf régions ultrapériphériques
- Contribution from Portugal to the new European Commission’s strategy for the Outermost Regions -
- Spanish Authorities’ contribution to the new strategy for Outermost Regions -
- Déclaration des Présidents des Régions Ultrapériques" (Madeira, 22 september 2016)
Studies and publications
- ‘Assess the potential for Investment Platforms supported by the Junker Plan in the Outermost Regions’, study by the European Investment Bank (July 2018): EN ES FR PT.
- ‘Committing to the outermost regions’, article in Panorama, no. 67 (December 2018): EN ES FR PT
- ‘EU Strategy to help its outermost regions’, article in Panorama, no. 63 (December 2017): EN ES FR PT
- The economic impact of climate change and adaptation in the Outermost Regions (June 2014): EN
- Study on migration and demographic trends in the outermost regions (February 2012): EN
- Growth Factors in the Outermost Regions (January 2011): EN
- Assess the potential for Investment Platforms supported by the Junker Plan in the Outermost Regions - Feasibility study
- Analyse de la mise en oeuvre des stratégies de spécialisation intelligente dans les régions ultrapéripheriques
- Realising the potential of the Outermost Regions for sustainable blue growth - Executive Summary
- Final report on transport accessibility for the EU Outermost Regions
- Final report on energy for the EU Outermost Regions
- Final report on digital accessibility and ICT for the EU Outermost Regions
- Final report on green and circular economy in the Outermost Regions
- Memorandum conjoint des regions ultraperipheriques - Pour un nouvel élan dans la mise en oeuvre de l’article 349 TFUE
- The Outermost Regions: European lands In the world
- Les effets de l’octroi du statut de région ultrapériphérique
- POSEI: evaluation and report from the European Commission
- Ilmastonmuutos ja riskien ennaltaehkäisy
- Ympäristö ja luonnonvarojen käytön tehokkuus
- Liikenne- ja energiaverkot
- Työllisyys ja työmarkkinat
- Sosiaalinen osallisuus
- Tehokas julkishallinto