Measuring urban accessibility for low-carbon modes
Good urban public transport can reduce congestion, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It can improve a city’s quality of life and strengthen its economy. This map measures access to public transport for many European cities using the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal indicator. The map is accompanied by city fact sheets which report its various indicators and benchmark them to other cities.
Measuring urban accessibility for low-carbon modes.
Towards a name for each town
The European system of urban/rural territorial classifications relies upon basic types of 1 km² grid cell clusters. By definition, these clusters are independent from any existing administrative unit. This is an important asset as it avoids distortions due to historical, administrative and/or political factors. Nevertheless, when analysing indicators at the level of individual grid-based clusters it is very useful to be able to attribute a name to the clusters. High-density clusters (or urban centres) represent the major cities, each with a population of at least 50,000 inhabitants. There are more than 800 urban centres in Europe. Most of these can be associated with a particular local administrative unit. This means that it has been quite straightforward to allocate a name to each of the grid-based urban centres.
The class of urban clusters (moderate-density clusters) contains suburbs and towns. While suburbs can be associated to urban centres, grid-based towns do not have any a-priori name. Still, providing names to these units can be useful to facilitate referencing them. Hence, the challenge is to provide (unique) names for more than 9000 towns throughout Europe.
Towards a name for each town.
European Regional Competitiveness Index
Regional competitiveness is the ability of a region to offer an attractive and sustainable environment for firms and residents to live and work. Launched in 2010 and published every three years, the Regional Competitiveness Index (RCI) allows regions to monitor and assess their development over time and in comparison with other regions.
Road transport performance in Europe
In Europe, governments invest EUR 100 billion in transport each year to provide people and firms with better access. Accessibility indicators can be used to capture the benefits of these investments, for example by measuring how many destinations can be reached. In that sense, they are a significant improvement over indicators such as speed, capacity or congestion. However, they are seldom used in decision-making. Furthermore, accessibility indicators often primarily reflect the spatial distribution of destinations rather than the performance of transport networks.
Population at risk of poverty
Given the marked territorial dimension of at-risk-of-poverty rates, national level indicators hide important differences. Policies addressing poverty could benefit from a more detailed geographical breakdown of the prevailing situation and of the main determinants. This is why the European Commission has produced a more detailed poverty map in cooperation with ESPON and the World Bank.
The at-risk-of-poverty rate is a relative measure of poverty. The poverty threshold is set at national level: someone with a given level of income can be considered at risk of poverty in one country and not at risk in another country where income levels are generally lower.
Road accessibility in border regions
Cross-border interactions within the European Union (EU) still face more obstacles than interactions within national borders. Road accessibility might be only one of these obstacles, but adequate transport infrastructure is necessary to provide access to opportunities. To help improve cross- border cooperation, we assess road transport infrastructure in border regions.
The geography of EU discontent
Over the last decade, political parties opposed to EU integration have almost doubled their votes. The general opinion of the EU has also deteriorated, revealing a growing number of people who distrust the Union. For the first time, it maps the vote against EU integration in the last national elections across more than 63 000 electoral districts in each of the EU Member States.
Typology of public transport frequencies
Rapid and frequent public transport has a big impact on urban economies. It can expand labour markets, offer more opportunities and better accessibility. These benefits are also reflected in the real estate market with (much) higher prices for houses and offices close to metro stations and highly accessible locations.
European Quality of Government Index
The European Quality of Government Index (EQI), developed by the Quality of Government Institute of Gothenburg University, measures institutional quality at the regional level in the European Union.
European Quality of Government Index.
Degree of Urbanisation
The degree of urbanisation typology classifies all local authorities (municipalities) into (1) cities, (2) towns and suburbs and (3) rural areas. A wide range of indicators is produced by Eurostat using this classification. The interactive map allows you to check the classification for any place in the EU.
European Social Progress Index
The draft EU regional Social Progress Index aims to measure social progress for each region as a complement to traditional measures of economic progress. As it is intended to complement measures based on GDP, income or employment, it purposely leaves such indicators out of the index. It follows the overall framework of the global Social Progress Index and is based on fifty indicators, primarily from Eurostat.
In the Commission's Seventh Report for Economic, Social and Territorial Cohesion a serie of maps shows how European regions compare in a wide range of areas: the economy, social development, the environment, transport, health, education, research and development.
EU regional funding 2014-2020
Structural Funds 2014-2020 (ERDF and ESF) eligibility
Cross-border cooperation - (4 MB)
Transnational cooperation - (10 MB)
EU regional funding 2007-2013
Regions eligible under the convergence and regional competitiveness objectives
Crossborder Cooperation - (1,5 MB)
Transnational Cooperation areas - (2 MB)
|Northern Periphery||South West Europe||Baltic Sea|
|Mediterranean||North West Europe||South East Europe|
|North Sea||Caribbean Area||Atlantic Coast|
|Açores-Madeira-Canarias||Alpine Space||Indian Ocean Area|
EU regional funding: history
Structural Funds 1989-2020 eligibility
Structural Funds 1989-2020 eligibility - (1,5 MB)
Watch this short clip to see how the regions eligible for EU regional funding have evolved over the period 1989-2020.