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Mobility for learners and staff in vocational education and training

This action supports providers of vocational education and training (VET) and other organisations active in the field of VET that want to organise learning mobility activities for VET learners and staff.

A wide range of activities are supported, including job shadowing and professional development courses for staff, traineeships and long-term placements (ErasmusPro), invited experts, and other activities as explained below.  

The participating organisations should actively promote inclusion and diversity, environmental sustainability and digital education through their activities: by using the specific funding opportunities provided by the Programme for these purposes, by raising awareness among their participants, by sharing best practices, and by choosing appropriate design for their activities. 

Objectives of the Action

The purpose of mobility activities funded by Erasmus+ is to provide learning opportunities to individuals and to support internationalisation and institutional development of VET providers and other organisations in vocational education and training. The action will support the implementation of the Council Recommendation on vocational education and training and the Osnabrück Declaration, and the European Skills Agenda.  It will also contribute to the creation of the European Education Area. Specifically, the objectives of this action are:

Increasing the quality of initial and continuing vocational education and training (IVET and CVET) in Europe by:

  • strengthening key competences and transversal skills, in particular language learning
  • supporting the development of job specific skills needed in the current and future labour market
  • sharing best practices and promoting the use of new and innovative pedagogical methods and technologies, and supporting the professional development of teachers, trainers, mentors and other staff in VET
  • building the capacity of VET providers to carry out high quality mobility projects, and their ability to form quality partnerships while developing their internationalisation strategy
  • making mobility a realistic possibility for any learner in IVET and CVET, and increasing the average duration of mobility for VET learners to increase its quality and impact
  • fostering the quality, transparency and recognition of learning outcomes of mobility periods abroad, especially by using European tools and instruments1

Strengthening the European dimension of teaching and learning by:  

  • promoting values of inclusion and diversity, tolerance, and democratic participation
  • promoting knowledge about shared European heritage and diversity  
  • supporting development of professional networks across Europe

How to access Erasmus+ mobility opportunities?

VET providers and other organisations active in vocational education and training can apply for funding in two ways:

  • Short-term projects for mobility of learners and staff provide applicant organisations with an opportunity to organise various mobility activities over a period of six to eighteen months. Short-term projects are the best choice for organisations trying Erasmus+ for the first time, or for those that wish to organise only a limited number of activities.
  • Accredited projects for mobility of learners and staff are open only to organisations holding an Erasmus accreditation in the field of vocational education and training. This special funding strand allows accredited organisations to regularly receive funding for mobility activities that contribute to the gradual implementation of their Erasmus Plan. 

Erasmus accreditations are open to all organisations that want to organise mobility activities on a regular basis. Previous experience in the Programme is not required to apply. To find out more about this opportunity, please read the chapter of this guide on Erasmus accreditation in the fields of adult education, vocational education and training, and school education.

In addition, organisations can join the Programme without submitting an application by:

  • Joining an existing Erasmus+ mobility consortium led by an accredited consortium coordinator in their country that is accepting new members in their consortium.
  • Hosting participants from another country: any organisation can become a host for learners or staff coming from a partner organisation abroad. Becoming a hosting organisation is a valuable experience and a good way to learn more about the Programme before applying yourself.

VET providers are encouraged to join eTwinning: an online a community hosted on a secure platform and accessible to teachers verified by the eTwinning service in each country. eTwinning allows VET providers to set up joint virtual classrooms and carry out projects with other VET providers and other partner organisations (i.e. hosting companies), it allows teachers and trainers to discuss and exchange with colleagues and to get involved in a variety of professional development opportunities. eTwinning is also the perfect environment to find partners for future projects.

Setting up a project

The applicant organisation is the key actor in a Key Action 1 project. The applicant drafts and submits the application, signs the grant agreement, implements the mobility activities, and reports to their National Agency. The application process for both short-term projects and the Erasmus accreditation focuses on the needs and plans of the applicant organisation.

Most types of available activities are outgoing mobility activities. This means that the applicant organisation will act as a sending organisation: it will select participants and send them to a hosting organisation abroad. In addition, there are special types of activities that allow applicant organisations to invite experts or teachers and educators in training to their organisation. The purpose of incoming activities is not to create two-way exchanges, but rather to bring in persons who can help develop and internationalise the applicant organisation.

Implementation of all activities supported under this Action must follow the Erasmus quality standards. The Erasmus quality standards cover concrete implementation practices for project tasks such as selection and preparation of participants, definition, evaluation and recognition of learning outcomes, sharing of project results, etc. To read the full text of the Erasmus quality standards, please visit the following link at the Europa website: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/resources/documents/erasmus...;

Inclusion and diversity  

In line with the Erasmus quality standards, organisations that receive support from the Programme must ensure that they offer mobility opportunities in an inclusive and equitable way, to participants from all backgrounds. The selection of learners that will take part in project activities should take into account key factors such as motivation, merit, as well as personal development and learning needs of the participants. Similarly, selection of staff participants should ensure that benefits of their professional development are available to all learners in the organisation.  

Throughout the preparation, implementation and follow-up of mobility activities, the sending and hosting organisations should involve the participants in key decisions to ensure maximum benefits and impact for each participant.   

Participating organisations that provide education and training are encouraged to actively create and facilitate mobility opportunities, for example by establishing mobility windows in their academic calendar and defining standard re-integration steps for returning participants.  

Environmentally sustainable and responsible practices

In line with the Erasmus quality standards, organisations that receive support from the Programme must promote environmentally sustainable and responsible behaviour among their participants, raising the awareness about the importance of acting to reduce or compensate for the environmental footprint of mobility activities. These principles should be reflected in the preparation and implementation of all Programme activities, especially by using specific funding support provided by the Programme to promote sustainable means of travel. Organisations providing education and training should integrate these principles in their everyday work, and should actively promote a change of mind-set and behaviour among their learners and staff.   

Digital transition in education and training  

In line with the Erasmus quality standards, the Programme supports all participating organisations in incorporating the use of digital tools and learning methods to complement their physical activities, to improve the cooperation between partner organisations, and to improve the quality of their learning and teaching. The VET institutions should also raise awareness among their learners and staff about opportunities within the programme to acquire and further develop relevant digital skills, including Digital Opportunity Traineeships for VET learners and recent graduates2. Teaching and administrative staff can also benefit from digital skills training programmes to acquire relevant digital skills for making use of digital technologies in courses and for digitalising administration.

Activities

This section presents the type of activities that can be supported by Erasmus+ funds, both as part of short-term projects and accredited projects.

For any activity, additional support can be provided for persons accompanying participants with fewer opportunities, minors, or young adults that require supervision. Accompanying persons can be supported for whole or part of the activity’s duration. 

Staff mobility

Eligible activities

  • Job shadowing (2 to 60 days)
  • Teaching or training assignments (2 to 365 days)
  • Courses and training (2 to 30 days)

In case of courses and training, eligible course fees will be limited to a total of 10 days per participant. The choice of courses and training is a responsibility of the applicants. The following quality standards were designed to guide the applicants in their choice of course providers: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/resources/quality-standards...  

In addition to physical mobility, all staff mobility activities can be blended with virtual activities. The minimum and maximum durations specified above apply to the physical mobility component.

Eligible participants

Eligible participants include teachers, trainers, and all other non-teaching experts and staff working in initial vocational education and training (iVET) and in continuing vocational education and training (cVET).

Eligible non-teaching staff includes staff working in initial and continuing VET, either in VET providers (as management staff, international mobility officers, etc.) or in other organisations active in vocational education and training (e.g. trainers in local partner companies, counsellors, policy coordinators in charge of vocational education and training, etc.).

Participants must be working in the sending organisation, or must be regularly working with the sending organisation to help implement the organisation’s core activities (for example as external trainers, experts, or volunteers).

In all cases, the tasks that link the participant to the sending organisation must be documented in a way that allows the National Agency to verify this link (for example with a work or volunteer contract, task description, or a similar document). The National Agencies shall establish a transparent and consistent practice on what constitutes acceptable working relationships and supporting documentation in their national context.

Eligible venues

Activities must take place abroad, in a Programme Country.

In addition, organisations holding an Erasmus accreditation can send participants on job shadowing and teaching or training assignments in Partner Countries (Regions 1-14).

Learner mobility

Eligible activities

  • Participation in skills competitions (1 to 10 days)
  • Short-term learning mobility of VET learners (10 to 89 days)
  • Long-term learning mobility of VET learners (ErasmusPro) (90 to 365 days)

In addition to physical mobility, all learner mobility activities can be blended with virtual activities. The minimum and maximum durations specified above apply to the physical mobility component.

Participation in skills competitions: VET learners can participate in skills competitions abroad. Funding is also provided for staff, mentors or experts accompanying the learners during the activity.

Short-term learning mobility of VET learners: VET learners can spend a period learning abroad at a partner VET provider, in a company, or in another organisation active in the field of VET or the labour market. The learning period must include a strong work-based component and an individual learning programme must be defined for each participant. For participants with fewer opportunities, mobility can be organised with a minimum duration of 2 days, if justified.

Long-term learning mobility of VET learners (ErasmusPro): VET learners can spend a longer period learning abroad at a partner VET provider, in a company, or in another organisation active in the field of VET or the labour market. The learning period must include a strong work-based component and an individual learning programme must be defined for each participant.

Eligible participants

Eligible participants include learners and apprentices in initial vocational education and training (iVET) and in continuing vocational education and training (cVET). Participants must be enrolled in an eligible iVET or cVET programme3.

Recent graduates (including former apprentices) of eligible iVET and cVET programmes are eligible to participate up to 12 months after their graduation. In case the participants have been fulfilling obligatory civil or military service after graduation, the period of eligibility will be extended by the duration of the service.

Eligible venues

Activities must take place abroad, in a Programme Country.

In addition, organisations holding an Erasmus accreditation can send participants to Partner Countries for any of the above learner mobility activities.

Other supported activities

Eligible activities

  • Invited experts (2 to 60 days)
  • Hosting teachers and educators in training (10 to 365 days)
  • Preparatory visits

Invited experts: organisations can invite trainers, teachers, policy experts or other qualified professionals from abroad who can help improve the teaching, training and learning at the receiving organisation. For example, invited experts may provide training to the receiving organisation’s staff, demonstrate new teaching methods or help transfer good practices in organisation and management.

Hosting teachers and educators in training: applicant organisations can host teachers in training who want to spend a traineeship period abroad. The hosting organisation will receive support to set up the activity, while the travel and individual support for the participant should be provided by their sending institution (who may also apply for Erasmus+ funding for this purpose).

Preparatory visits: organisations can set up a preparatory visit to their hosting partner before the mobility takes place. Preparatory visits are not a stand-alone activity, but a supporting arrangement for mobility of staff or learners. Each preparatory visit must have a clear reasoning and must serve to improve inclusiveness, scope and quality of mobility activities. For example, preparatory visits can be organised to better prepare mobility of participants with fewer opportunities, to start working with a new partner organisation, or to prepare longer mobility activities. Preparatory visits cannot be organised to prepare a course or training activity for staff.

Eligible participants

Invited experts can be any persons from another Programme Country with expertise that is relevant for the needs and objectives of the organisation that invites them.

Hosting teachers and educators in training is available for participants who are enrolled in or recently graduated4 from a teacher education programme (or a similar kind of education programme for trainers or educators) in another Programme Country.

Preparatory visits can be carried out by any persons eligible for staff mobility activities and involved in the organisation of the project. Exceptionally, learners who will take part in long-term learning mobility and participants with fewer opportunities in any type of activity can take part in preparatory visits for their activities.

Short-term projects for mobility of learners and staff in vocational education and training

Short-term projects for mobility of learners and staff are a straightforward and simple way to benefit from Erasmus+. Their purpose is to allow organisations to organise a few activities in an easy way and to gain experience in the Programme.  

In order to stay simple, short-term projects include a limit on the number of participants and the duration of the project. The format is open only to individual organisations and not to consortium coordinators. Accredited organisations cannot apply for short-term projects since they already have permanent access to Erasmus+ funding.

The application for short-term projects includes a list and description of activities that the applicant organisation plans to organise.

Eligibility criteria

Eligible organisations: who can apply?

The following organisations are eligible5 to apply:

  • Organisations providing initial or continuing vocational education and training
  • Local and regional public authorities, coordination bodies and other organisations with a role in the field of vocational education and training
  • Companies and other public or private organisations hosting, training or otherwise working with learners and apprentices in vocational education and training

However, organisations holding an Erasmus accreditation in vocational education and training cannot apply for short-term projects.

Eligible countries

Applicant organisations must be established in a Programme Country

Where to submit an application?

Applications are submitted to the National Agency of the country where the applicant organisation is established.

Application deadlines

Round 1 for all National Agencies: 11 May at 12:00:00 (midday Brussels time)

Round 2 for National Agencies that decide to open a second deadline: 5 October at 12:00:00 (midday Brussels time)

The National Agencies will inform the applicants about the opening of the second deadline through their website.

Project start dates

Projects can choose the following start dates:

  • Round 1: between 1 September and 31 December of the same year
  • Round 2: between 1 January and 31 May of the following year

Project duration

From 6 to 18 months

Number of applications

Per selection round, an organisation may apply for only one short-term project in the field of vocational education and training.

Organisations that receive a grant for a short-term project under the first round of applications may not apply for the second round of the same call for proposals.

Within a period of any five consecutive call years, organisations may receive a maximum of three grants for short-term projects in vocational education and training. Grants received in the 2014-2020 period do not count towards this limit.

Available activities

All types of activities for vocational education and training within Programme Countries. For a detailed list and rules, see section ’Activities’.

Project scope

An application for a short-term project can include a maximum of 30 participants in mobility activities.

Preparatory visits and participation of accompanying persons will not count towards this limit.

Award criteria  

Submitted applications will be assessed by assigning points out of a total of 100, based on the below criteria and weightings. To be considered for award, applications must pass the following thresholds:

  • At least 60 out of the total 100 points, and
  • At least half of the maximum points in each of the three award criteria categories

Relevance

(maximum 30 points)

The extent to which:

  • the applicant’s profile, experience, activities and target population of learners are relevant for the field of vocational education and training
  • the project proposal is relevant for the objectives of the action
  • the project proposal is relevant for the following specific priorities:
    • supporting newcomers and less experienced organisations
    • supporting participants in ErasmusPro activities
    • supporting participants with fewer opportunities

Quality of project design (maximum score 40 points)

The extent to which:

  • the proposed project objectives address the needs of the applicant organisation, its staff and learners in a clear and concrete way
  • the proposed activities and their content are appropriate for the achievement of the project objectives
  • there is a clear plan of working for each of the proposed activities
  • the project incorporates environmentally sustainable and responsible practices
  • the project incorporates the use of digital tools and learning methods to complement their physical mobility activities, and to improve the cooperation with partner organisations

Quality of follow-up actions (maximum score 30 points)

The extent to which:

  • the applicant has proposed concrete and logical steps to integrate the results of mobility activities in the organisation’s regular work  
  • the applicant has proposed an appropriate way of evaluating the project outcomes
  • the applicant has proposed concrete and effective steps to make the results of the project known within the applicant organisation, to share the results with other organisations and the public, and to publicly acknowledge the European Union funding

Accredited projects for mobility of learners and staff in vocational education and training

Organisations holding an Erasmus accreditation in vocational education and training can apply for funding as part of a special funding strand open only for them. Applications are based on the previously approved Erasmus Plan, so a detailed list and description of the planned activities is not required at the time of applying for funds. Instead, the applications focus on estimating the budget needed for the next set of activities.

Eligibility criteria

Eligible organisations: who can apply?

Organisations holding a valid Erasmus accreditation in vocational education and training are eligible to apply.

Mobility consortium

Organisations holding an Erasmus accreditation for mobility consortium coordinators must apply for the mobility consortium format.

List of mobility consortium members must be provided as part of the application and must include at least one member organisation in addition to the coordinator.

Any organisation meeting the eligibility criteria for an accredited mobility project can become a member of a mobility consortium. Consortium members are not required to have an Erasmus accreditation.

Organisations taking part in a mobility consortium can receive funding from a maximum of two Key Action 1 grant agreements in the field of vocational education and training under the same Call for proposals. Therefore, VET organisations that receive a grant for a short-term project or an accredited project can additionally take part in only one VET mobility consortium as member organisations. Other organisations can take part in up to two mobility consortia. 

Where to submit an application?

Applications are submitted to the National Agency of the country where the applicant organisation is established.

Application deadline

11 May at 12:00:00 (midday Brussels time)

Project start date

1 September of the same year

Project duration

All accredited projects will have an initial duration of 15 months. After 12 months, all beneficiaries will have the possibility to prolong their project to a total duration of 24 months.

Number of applications

Accredited organisations may apply only once per selection round.

Available activities

All types of activities for vocational education and training. For a detailed list and rules, see section ’Activities’.

Project scope

The number of participants that can be included in accredited projects is not limited, apart from any limitations defined at the budget allocation stage.

Projects may not allocate more than 20% of the awarded grant to activities with Partner Countries. These opportunities are intended to encourage an organisation in a Programme Country to develop outgoing mobility activities with several Partner Countries and are expected to cover the widest possible geographic scope.

Budget allocation

The quality of the applicant’s Erasmus Plan has been assessed at the accreditation application stage and therefore no qualitative assessment will take place at budget allocation stage. Any eligible grant application will receive funding.

The awarded grant amount will depend on a number of elements:

  • the total budget available for allocation to accredited applicants  
  • the requested activities  
  • the basic and maximum grant
  • the following allocation criteria: financial performance, qualitative performance, policy priorities, and geographical balance (if applied by the National Agency)

Detailed rules on basic and maximum grant, scoring of the allocation criteria, weighting of each criterion, the allocation method and, the budget available for accredited projects will be published by the National Agency ahead of the call deadline.

What are the funding rules?

The following funding rules will apply for short-term projects and accredited projects.

Budget category Eligible costs and applicable rules Amount
Organisational support

Costs directly linked to the implementation of mobility activities that are not covered by other cost categories.

For example: preparation (pedagogical, intercultural and other), mentoring, monitoring and support of participants during mobility, services, tools and equipment needed for virtual components in blended activities, recognition of learning outcomes, sharing results and making the European Union funding visible to the public.

Organisational support covers the costs incurred by both sending and hosting organisations (except in the case of staff mobility for courses and training). The division of the received grant will be agreed between the two organisations.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs.

Rule of allocation: based on the number of participants.

100 EUR

  • Per participant in staff mobility for courses and training
  • Per invited expert
  • Per hosted teacher or educator in training
  • Per participant in VET skills competitions

350 EUR; 200 EUR after one hundred participants in the same type of activity

  • Per participant in short-term learning mobility of VET learners
  • Per participant in staff mobility for job shadowing and teaching or training assignments

500 EUR

  • Per participant in long-term learning mobility of VET learners (ErasmusPro)
  • Per participant in any activity with Partner countries
Travel

Contribution to the return travel costs of participants and accompanying persons from their place of origin to the venue of the activity.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs

Rule of allocation: based on the travel distance and number of persons

The applicant must indicate the air distance between the place of origin and the venue of the activity6  by using the distance calculator supported by the European Commission7.

Travel distance Standard travel Green travel
0 – 99 km 23 EUR
100 – 499 km 180 EUR 210 EUR
500 – 1999 km 275 EUR 320 EUR
2000 – 2999 km 360 EUR 410 EUR
3000 – 3999 km 530 EUR 610 EUR
4000 – 7999 km 820 EUR
8000 km or more 1500 EUR
Individual support

Costs of subsistence for participants and accompanying persons8  during the activity.

If necessary, subsistence costs are eligible for travel time before and after the activity, with a maximum of two travel days for participants receiving standard travel grant, and a maximum of four additional days for participants receiving a green travel grant.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs.

Rule of allocation: based on the number of persons, duration of stay and receiving country9.

Category of participants Country group 1 Country group 2 Country group 3
Staff 90 - 180 EUR 80 - 160 EUR 70 - 140 EUR
VET learners 35 - 120 EUR 30 - 104 EUR 25- 88 EUR

The above are base rates per day of activity. Each NA will decide on exact base rates within the allowed ranges.

The base rate is payable up to the 14th day of activity. From the 15th day of activity, the payable rate will be equal to 70% of the base rate. Payable rates will be rounded to the nearest whole Euro.

Inclusion support

Costs related to the organisation of mobility activities for participants with fewer opportunities.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs.

Rule of allocation: based on the number of participants with fewer opportunities.

100 EUR per participant

Additional costs directly linked to participants with fewer opportunities and their accompanying persons (including costs related to travel and subsistence if a grant for these participants is not requested through budget categories "Travel" and "Individual support").

Financing mechanism: real costs.

Rule of allocation:  the request must be justified by the applicant and approved by the National Agency.

100% of eligible costs
Preparatory visits

Costs covering travel and subsistence for participation in a preparatory visit.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs.

Rule of allocation: based on the number of participants.

575 EUR per participant, with a maximum of three participants per visit
Course fees

Costs covering enrolment fees for courses and training.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs.

Rule of allocation: based on the duration of the activity.

80 EUR per participant per day; an individual staff member may receive a maximum of 800 EUR in course fees within one grant agreement.
Linguistic support

Costs of providing language learning materials and training to participants who need to improve the knowledge of the language they will use to study or receive training during their activity.

Financing mechanism: contribution to unit costs.

Rule of allocation: based on the number of participants.

150 EUR per participant eligible for Online Language Support that cannot receive it due to unavailability of the appropriate language or level, excluding staff in mobility shorter than 31 days.

In addition: 150 EUR per participant in ErasmusPro

Exceptional costs

Costs for providing a financial guarantee, if the National Agency asks for it.

Expensive travel costs of participants and their accompanying persons that cannot be supported with the standard “Travel” category due to geographical remoteness or other barriers.

Financing mechanism: real costs.

Rule of allocation: the request must be justified by the applicant and approved by the National Agency.

Costs for financial guarantee: 80% of eligible costs
Expensive travel costs: 80% of eligible travel costs

  • 1. Memorandum of Understanding and Learning Agreements.
  • 2. Any VET learner mobility will be considered as “Digital Opportunity Traineeship” when one or more of the following activities are practiced by the trainee: digital marketing (e.g. social media management, web analytics); digital graphical, mechanical or architectural design; development of apps, software, scripts, or websites; installation, maintenance and management of IT systems and networks; cybersecurity; data analytics, mining and visualisation; programming and training of robots and artificial intelligence applications. Generic customer support, order fulfilment, data entry or office tasks are not considered in this category.
  • 3. The eligible iVET and cVET programmes in each Programme Country will be defined by the competent National Authority and published on the website of the relevant National Agency.
  • 4. Recent graduates are eligible to participate up to 12 months after their graduation. In case the participants have been fulfilling obligatory civil or military service after graduation, the period of eligibility will be extended by the duration of the service.
  • 5. The eligible organisations in each Programme Country will be defined by the competent National Authority and published on the website of the relevant National Agency together with relevant examples.
  • 6. For example, if a person from Madrid (Spain) is taking part in an activity taking place in Rome (Italy), the applicant will  calculate the distance from Madrid to Rome (1365,28 KM) and then select the applicable travel distance band (i.e. between 500 and 1999 km).
  • 7. http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/tools/distance_en.htm
  • 8. In case of accompanying persons, the rates for staff apply. In exceptional cases, where the accompanying person needs to stay abroad for more than 60 days, extra subsistence costs beyond the 60th day will be supported under the budget heading "Inclusion support".
  • 9.

    Receiving country groups for Programme countries:
    Country group 1: Norway, Denmark, Luxembourg, Iceland, Sweden, Ireland, Finland, Liechtenstein;
    Country group 2: Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Portugal;
    Country group 3: Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Croatia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Turkey, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, the Republic of North Macedonia, Serbia

    Receiving country groups for Partner countries:
    Country group 1: Japan,  Israel, South Korea, Georgia, Argentina, Armenia, Angola, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United States, United Kingdom, Bahrain, Azerbaijan, , Sudan, Saint Kitts & Nevis, St. Vincent & Grenadines, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Vietnam, Mexico, Taiwan, Moldova, Malaysia, Tanzania, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Thailand, Fareo Islands.
    Country group 2: India, Kazakhstan, Brazil, DR Congo, Chile, Nigeria, Uganda, Liberia, Djibouti, DPR Korea, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, , Belarus, Libya, Syria, Cuba, Yemen, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Antigua and Barbuda, , Brunei, Montenegro, Switzerland, Malawi, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Dominica, Uruguay, Albania, China, Philippines, Peru, Venezuela, Panama, Ghana, Chad, Guyana,  Egypt, Morocco,  Kiribati, Oman, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iran, Mozambique, Senegal, Mauritius, Qatar, Andorra, Jordan, Indonesia, Laos, South Africa, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Ecuador, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Gabon, Haiti, Bahamas, Papua New Guinea, Micronesia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Monaco, San Marino, Palestine, Vatican City State.
    Country group 3: Nepal, Maldives, Tajikistan, Nicaragua, Zambia, Guinea, Congo, Botswana, Belize, Samoa, Marshall Islands, Palau, Tuvalu, Nauru, Cook Islands, Niue, New Zealand, Pakistan, Bhutan, El Salvador, Suriname, Guatemala, Honduras, Somalia, Trinidad and Tobago, Algeria, Columbia, Gambia, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cambodia, Zimbabwe, Burundi, Mongolia, Cameroon, Timor-Leste, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Mali, Togo, Sao Tome & Principe, Tonga, Bolivia, Benin, Lesotho, Macao, Tunisia, Iraq, Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Namibia, Comoros, Eritrea, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Niger, Mauritania, Cabo Verde, Kosovo, Eswatini, South Sudan.

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