Münster and Osnabrück – Sites of the Peace of Westphalia, Germany
The Peace of Westphalia describes the totality of the peace treaties that were negotiated and agreed upon in the cities of Münster and Osnabrück in 1648.
They brought an end to the Thirty Years' War (AD 1618-1648), in which all major European powers were involved and which was not only a conflict between states, but also between religions.
Moreover, the conflict also concluded the Dutch War of Independence (AD 1568-1648) from Spain. The Peace of Westphalia was a seminal event in the development of the state and of international law. The principles there developed remain in effect and decisively shaped the order of today's Europe.
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