European Capitals of Culture
An initiative putting culture at the heart of European cities with EU support for yearlong festivals of art and culture.
In 2015, the European Capitals of Culture celebrated their 30th anniversary.
What is it?
The European Capitals of Culture initiative is designed to:
- Highlight the richness and diversity of cultures in Europe
- Celebrate the cultural features Europeans share
- Increase European citizens' sense of belonging to a common cultural area
- Foster the contribution of culture to the development of cities
In addition to this, experience has shown that the event is an excellent opportunity for:
- Regenerating cities
- Raising the international profile of cities;
- Enhancing the image of cities in the eyes of their own inhabitants
- Breathing new life into a city's culture
- Boosting tourism
How does it work?
Designation of European Capitals of Culture in EU member states
Six years before the title-year the selected host member states publish a call for applications, usually through their Ministry for Culture. Cities interested in participating in the competition must submit a proposal for consideration.
The submitted applications are reviewed against a set of established criteria during a pre-selection phase by a panel of independent experts in the field of culture. The panel agrees on a short-list of cities, which are then asked to submit more detailed applications.
The panel then reconvenes to assess the final applications and recommends one city per host country for the title. The recommended city will then be formally designated as European Capital of Culture.
The role of the European Commission is to ensure that the rules established at EU level are respected all along the way.
From designation to implementation…
European Capitals of Culture are formally designated four years before the actual year. This long period of time is necessary for the planning and preparation of such a complex event. The panel, supported by the European Commission, has a continuing role during these four years in supporting European Capitals of Culture with advice and guidance and taking stock of their preparations.
At the end of this monitoring period, the panel will consider whether to recommend or not that the European Commission pays the Melina Mercouri Prize (currently €1.5m funded from the EU Creative Europe programme).
… to evaluation of the outcomes
Each year the European Commission publishes an evaluation report on the outcomes of the European Capitals of Culture of the previous year. For the Capitals post 2019, the cities themselves will carry out their own evaluation and send it to the Commission by the end of the year following that of the title.
What has been done so far?
The initiative was developed in 1985 and has, to date, been awarded to more than 50 cities across the European Union. The 2017 European Capitals of Culture are:
What are the next steps?
European Capitals of Culture have already been designated until 2021:
- 2018 – Leeuwarden (Netherlands) and Valletta (Malta)
- 2019 – Plovdiv (Bulgaria) and Matera (Italy)
- 2020 - Rijeka (Croatia) and Galway (Ireland)
- 2021 - Timișoara (Romania), Elefsina (Greece) and Novi Sad (Serbia, Candidate country/potential candidate)
Kaunas and Esch have been recommended for the 2022 title respectively in Lithuania and in Luxembourg, and are pending the official nomination by the relevant national authorities. The competition for the ECOC 2023 title is ongoing in Hungary. Austria has also published its call for applications to launch its competition for the ECOC 2024 title.
A new framework for the initiative, post 2019, was adopted by the European Parliament and Council in April 2014. It includes the chronological list of member states that can host the title from 2020 until 2033.
This new framework, as amended by a recent Decision of the European Parliament and the Council, makes it possible for a city in a candidate country, in a potential candidate for EU membership or in a European Free Trade Association country which is party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area (so-called EFTA/EEA countries) to hold the title every third year. This will be selected through an open competition, meaning that cities from various countries may compete with each other. The next competition of the kind has just been launched for the 2024 ECOC title Decision.
Cities wishing to take part in future should await the announcement of a competition in their own country, and then complete and submit a bid in response to the call for applications published by the authority in charge of the competition (usually the Ministry of Culture).
- Decision establishing the European Capital of Culture action from 2007-2019
- Decision establishing the European Capital of Culture action from 2020-2033
- Commission staff working document for the Capitals of Culture from 2020-2033
- Interim evaluation of selection and monitoring procedures of the European Capitals of Culture (2011)
- Analysis of the results of an online consultation for the future of the European Capitals of Culture after 2019
- Summary of the public meeting on the online consultation
- European Capital of Culture Fact Sheet
- Guide for cities wishing to apply for the title of European Capital of Culture
- Compendium of recommendations from ex-post evaluations of European Capitals of Culture 2007-2015
- European Parliament study on "European Capitals of Culture: Success Strategies and Long-Term Effects"
- The Palmer Report on the Capitals of Culture from 1995-2004
(part 1 and part 2),
prepared for the European Commission
- Commission's guidelines for cities' own evaluations
- Template for the call for applications including the selection questionnaire
- European Capitals of Culture:the road to success - from 1985 to 2010
- Summary of the European Commission conference "Celebrating 25 years of European Capitals of Culture" (2010)
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