European Capitals of Culture

An initiative putting culture at the heart of European cities with EU support for yearlong festivals of art and culture.

In 2015, the European Capitals of Culture celebrated their 30th anniversary.

Discover the brochure illustrating successful projects in recent European Capitals of Culture and the factsheet on the history and highlights of the initiative over the years.

What is it?

The European Capitals of Culture initiative is designed to:

  • Highlight the richness and diversity of cultures in Europe
  • Celebrate the cultural features Europeans share
  • Increase European citizens' sense of belonging to a common cultural area
  • Foster the contribution of culture to the development of cities

In addition to this, experience has shown that the event is an excellent opportunity for:

  • Regenerating cities
  • Raising the international profile of cities;
  • Enhancing the image of cities in the eyes of their own inhabitants
  • Breathing new life into a city's culture
  • Boosting tourism

How does it work?

Designation of European Capitals of Culture in EU member states

Six years before the title-year the selected host member states publish a call for applications, usually through their Ministry for Culture. Cities interested in participating in the competition must submit a proposal for consideration.

The submitted applications are reviewed against a set of established criteria during a pre-selection phase by a panel of independent experts in the field of culture. The panel agrees on a short-list of cities, which are then asked to submit more detailed applications.

The panel then reconvenes to assess the final applications and recommends one city per host country for the title. The recommended city will then be formally designated as European Capital of Culture.

The role of the European Commission is to ensure that the rules established at EU level are respected all along the way.

From designation to implementation…

European Capitals of Culture are formally designated four years before the actual year. This long period of time is necessary for the planning and preparation of such a complex event. The panel, supported by the European Commission, has a continuing role during these four years in supporting European Capitals of Culture with advice and guidance and taking stock of their preparations.

At the end of this monitoring period, the panel will consider whether to recommend or not that the European Commission pays the Melina Mercouri Prize (currently €1.5m funded from the EU Creative Europe programme).

… to evaluation of the outcomes

Each year the European Commission publishes an evaluation report on the outcomes of the European Capitals of Culture of the previous year. For the Capitals post 2019, the cities themselves will carry out their own evaluation and send it to the Commission by the end of the year following that of the title.

What has been done so far?

The initiative was developed in 1985 and has, to date, been awarded to more than 50 cities across the European Union. The 2019 European Capitals of Culture are:



European Capitals of Culture have already been designated until 2023:

2020 - Rijeka (Croatia) and Galway (Ireland)

2021 - Timișoara (Romania), Elefsina (Greece) and Novi Sad (Serbia, candidate country)

2022 – Kaunas (Lithuania) and Esch (Luxembourg)

2023 – Veszprém (Hungary) (recommended)

The competition for the ECOC 2023 title took place in Hungary with the final selection meeting in December 2018. In 2017, Estonia and Austria published their calls for applications to launch their competition for the ECOC 2024 title, and have their pre-selection meetings respectively in late 2018 and early 2019. Last September, Germany published its call to launch its competition for the ECOC title 2025 while Slovenia is expected to follow suit before the end of the year. Evaluation of the Cities holding the 2017 and 2018 titles are currently ongoing. See the Open Public Consultation of the 2017 European Capital of Culture, its annex , and the Evaluation Synopsis report gathering all types of consultations.

The chronological list of Member States that can host the ECOC title from 2020 until 2033 is known. It is indicated in the Annex to the Decision adopted by the European Parliament and the Council in April 2014. 

This new framework, as amended by a recent Decision of the European Parliament and the Council, makes it possible for a city in a candidate country, in a potential candidate for EU membership or in a European Free Trade Association country which is party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area (so-called EFTA/EEA countries) to hold the title every third year. This will be selected through an open competition, meaning that cities from various countries may compete with each other. The next competition of the kind has been launched for the 2024 ECOC title with pre-selection taking place in November 2018.

Cities wishing to take part in future should await the announcement of a competition in their own country, and then complete and submit a bid in response to the call for applications published by the authority in charge of the competition (usually the Ministry of Culture).

The Capitals from 2011 onwards

Austria Estonia EFTA/EEA country, Candidate country, Potential candidate
Kaunas Esch 

Photo: © Leeuwarden-Fryslân 2018  © Chris Mangion