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Find and Compare Qualifications Frameworks

Find and Compare Qualifications Frameworks

Compare the results of the national referencing process by choosing the national flag. Up to 5 examples of qualifications are provided for each NQF level. National systems may include many other qualifications at those levels.

  • Knowledge at the most advanced frontier of a field of work or study and at the interface between fields
  • The most advanced and specialised skills and techniques, including synthesis and evaluation, required to solve critical problems in research and/or innovation and to extend and redefine existing knowledge or professional practice
  • Demonstrate substantial authority, innovation, autonomy, scholarly and professional integrity and sustained commitment to the development of new ideas or processes at the forefront of work or study contexts including research
  • Highly specialised knowledge, some of which is at the forefront of knowledge in a field of work or study, as the basis for original thinking and/or research; critical awareness of knowledge issues in a field and at the interface between different fields
  • Specialised problem-solving skills required in research and/or innovation in order to develop new knowledge and procedures and to integrate knowledge from different fields
  • Manage and transform work or study contexts that are complex, unpredictable and require new strategic approaches; take responsibility for contributing to professional knowledge and practice and/or for reviewing the strategic performance of teams
  • Advanced knowledge of a field of work or study, involving a critical understanding of theories and principles
  • Advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, required to solve complex and unpredictable problems in a specialised field of work or study
  • Manage complex technical or professional activities or projects, taking responsibility for decision making in unpredictable work or study contexts; take responsibility for managing professional development of individuals and groups
  • Comprehensive, specialised, factual and theoretical knowledge within a field of work or study and an awareness of the boundaries of that knowledge
  • A comprehensive range of cognitive and practical skills required to develop creative solutions to abstract problems
  • Exercise management and supervision in contexts of work or study activities where there is unpredictable change review and develop performance of self and others
  • Factual and theoretical knowledge in broad contexts within a field of work or study
  • A range of cognitive and practical skills required to generate solutions to specific problems in a field of work or study
  • Exercise self-management within the guidelines of work or study contexts that are usually predictable, but are subject to change; supervise the routine work of others, taking some responsibility for the evaluation and improvement of work or study activities
  • Knowledge of facts, principles, processes and general concepts, in a field of work or study
  • A range of cognitive and practical skills required to accomplish tasks and solve problems by selecting and applying basic methods, tools, materials and information
  • Take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study; adapt own behaviour to circumstances in solving problems
  • Basic factual knowledge of a field of work or study
  • Basic cognitive and practical skills required to use relevant information in order to carry out tasks and to solve routine problems using simple rules and tools
  • Work or study under supervision with some autonomy
  • Basic general knowledge
  • Basic skills required to carry out simple tasks
  • Work or study under direct supervision in a structured context
Portugal
Country
National Agency for Qualification and Vocational, Education and Training (ANQEP)

ANQEP is a public body under the joint supervision of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour, Solidarity and Social Security in coordination with the Ministry of Economy.

 ANQEP's mission is: To coordinate the implementation of policies regarding the vocational education and training of young people and adults and to ensure the development and management of the National System for the Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences (RVCC System).
ANQEP's attributions are: - To promote the design and continual updating of the National Catalogue of Qualifications (NCQ); - To develop and manage the RVCC system – academic and/or professional (VNFIL) and to coordinate the network of the  Qualifica Centres; -  To guarantee the monitoring, assessment and regulation of the VET supply for young people and adults; - To coordinate and promote the design of pathways, curricula development and specific methodologies and materials for VET (both for young people and adults); - To cooperate with other public or private, national or international stakeholders, in order to foster the development of quality lifelong learning; - To participate in the development of initial and continuous Training Standards for teachers, trainers and other professionals working in VET, in full cooperation with namely higher education institutions.

ANQEP’s web page: www.anqep.gov.pt

NCP: National Agency for Qualification and Vocational, Education and Training (ANQEP)
Information
Referencing Report
Doctoral Degree (Doutoramento)

Knowledge 
knowledge at the most advanced frontier of a field of work or study and at the interface between fields.
Skills
The most advanced and specialised skills and techniques, including synthesis and evaluation, required to solve critical problems in research and/or innovation and to extend and redefine existing knowledge or professional practice.
Attitudes
Demonstrate substantial authority, innovation, autonomy, scholarly and professional integrity and sustained commitment to the development of new ideas or processes at the forefront of work or study contexts including research.

  • Doctoral degree
    The Doctoral degree is awarded to those who have demonstrated:a. The capacity for systematic understanding in a scientific field;b. Competences, skills, and research methods associated with a scientific field;c. The ability to conceive, plan, adapt and perform significant research complying with the demands imposed by standards of academic quality and integrity;d. The production of a significant body of original research which has contributed to challenging the boundaries of knowledge, part of which merited national or international dissemination in referenced publications;e. The ability to critically analyse, evaluate and synthesise new and complex ideas;f. The ability to communicate with their peers, the rest of the academic community and society in general in their expert field;g. The ability to promote technological, social or cultural progress in academic or professional terms in a knowledge-based society.The cycle of studies that leads to the Doctoral degree consists of:a) An original thesis specially written for that purpose or the compilation of a relevant and coherent ensemble of investigation works or, in Arts, an art piece or an ensemble of art pieces or works with innovator character;b) A number of curricular units aimed at research training known as a doctorate course whenever stipulated in the degree’s regulations. The duration and the total number of ECTS credits of the cycle of studies that leads to the Doctoral degree aren’t regulated in the applicable legislation.URL: https://www.dges.gov.pt/pt/pesquisa_cursos_instituicoes?plid=372&instituicao=&cursos=&distrito=&tipo_ensino=&tipo_estabelecimento=&area=&tipo_curso=10 
EQF Level 8
Master's degree (Mestrado)

Knowledge
Highly specialised knowledge, some of which is at the forefront of knowledge in a field of work or study, as the basis for original thinking and/or research. Critical awareness of knowledge issues in a field and at the interface between different fields.
Skills 
Specialised problem-solving skills required in research and/or innovation in order to develop new knowledge and procedures and to integrate knowledge from different fields.
Attitudes
Manage and transform work or study contexts that are complex, unpredictable and require new strategic approaches. Take responsibility for contributing to professional knowledge and practice and/or for reviewing the strategic performance of teams.

  • Master's degree
    The Master's degree is awarded to those who demonstrate that they:a. Possess such knowledge and capacity of understanding that:i) based on the knowledge obtained in the first cycle, they are able to develop and expand that knowledge;ii) are able to develop and apply that knowledge to original situations, often in the context of research;b. Know how to apply their knowledge and understanding and problem-solving capacities to new and unfamiliar situations in multidisciplinary situations, although related to their area of studies;c. Possess the ability to integrate knowledge, deal with complex matters, develop solutions and put forward opinions on situations of limited or incomplete information, including reflecting on the implications and ethical and social responsibilities that result from those solutions and opinions and that influence them;d. Are capable of communicating their conclusions and the knowledge and reasoning that underlie them clearly and unambiguously, to both experts and non-experts;e. Possess learning competences that will enable them to benefit from self-oriented or autonomous lifelong learning.The cycle of studies leading to a Master's degree includes between 90 and 120 ECTS credits and normally lasts between 3 and 4 curricular semesters. Exceptionally it may include only 60 ECTS credits and last for 2 curricular semesters.The cycle of studies leading to a Master's degree consists of:a) A specialised course, which accounts for a minimum of 50 per cent of the total number of credits;b) A dissertation or an original project, carried out specifically to this end, or a professional work placement which is to be concluded with a final report, which accounts for a minimum of 30 ECTS credits.Master's degree (through an integrated cycle) - In university education, a Master's degree may also be awarded after an integrated cycle of studies, conferring 300 to 360 ECTS credits and lasting between 10 and 12 curricular semesters. This is allowed in such cases where access to the practice of a particular professional activity is dependent upon that length of time.The learning outcomes are the same as of the cycle of studies leading to a Master's degree, but there is no minimum duration for the components specialised course and dissertation, project or professional work placement.Master's degree in MedicineIn Medicine, the training model adopted was the integrated cycle of studies leading to a Master's degree, with 360 ECTS credits and 12 semesters long, taught in university education.Basic medical training ensures that the person has acquired adequate knowledge of the sciences on which medicine is based, adequate knowledge of the structure, functions and behavior of human beings, healthy and sick, adequate knowledge of materials and clinical practice and adequate clinical experience under proper guidance in hospitals.Master's degree in ArchitectureIn Architecture, the training model adopted was the integrated cycle of studies leading to a Master's degree, with 300 ECTS credits and 10 semesters long, taught in university education.This training must maintain a balance between theoretical and practical aspects of architectural training and shall ensure the acquisition of adequate knowledge of architecture history and theories, the fine arts, planning of structural design problems, construction and civil engineering related to the design of buildings, industries, organizations, regulations and procedures involved in the implementation of projects, as well as ability to design architectural projects, to grasp the relationship between man and the buildings and their environment, and further understanding of the architectural profession and its role in society.Master's degree in Teacher TrainingThe professional qualification for teaching in pre-school education and primary and secondary education depends on obtaining a Master's degree in specific specialties (examples: Pre-school Education, Teaching of Physics and Chemistry in the 3rd Cycle of Basic Education and in Secondary Education, Teaching Philosophy in Secondary Education).The cycles of studies leading to the Master's degree in those specialities must have the name, duration, structure and organization set out in specific legislation and are subject to specific conditions of entry, including previous minimum training requirements.Mandatory components of those cycles of studies, in order to ensure the requirements of the professional performance, are: teaching area, general area of education, specific teaching area, cultural, social and ethical areas and initiation to professional practice.The cycles of studies leading to a Master's degree in Teacher Training are taught both in polytechnic and university education and last 3 to 4 semesters, awarding 90 to 120 ECTS credits.URL: http://"https://www.dges.gov.pt/pt/pesquisa_cursos_instituicoes?plid=372&instituicao=&cursos=&distrito=&tipo_ensino=&tipo_estabelecimento=&area=&tipo_curso=9 https://www.dges.gov.pt/pt/pesquisa_cursos_instituicoes?plid=372&instituicao=&cursos=&distrito=&tipo_ensino=&tipo_estabelecimento=&area=&tipo_curso=4"
EQF Level 7
Bachelor's degree (Licenciatura)

Knowledge 
Advanced knowledge of a field of work or study, involving a critical understanding of theories and principles.
Skills
Advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, required to solve complex and unpredictable problems in a specialised field of work or study.
Attitudes
Manage complex technical or professional activities or projects, taking responsibility for decision-making in unpredictable work or study contexts. Take responsibility for managing professional development of individuals and groups.

 

  • Bachelor's degree
    The Bachelor's degree is awarded to students who have demonstrated that they:a. Possess knowledge and capacity of understanding in a training area at such a level that:i) they can develop and expand on the knowledge acquired in secondary education;ii) they can work with advanced learning materials and relate to them;iii) they have state-of-the-art knowledge in some aspects of this area;b. Know how to apply acquired knowledge and understanding in order to clearly demonstrate a professional approach to the work carried out in their vocational area;c. Have the capacity to solve problems within the field of their studies, based upon their own arguments;d. Have the capacity to collate, select, and interpret relevant information, particularly in their training area, which will enable them to support the solutions they present and the opinions they put forward, including analysis of relevant social, technical and ethical aspects;e. Possess skills that enable them to communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions, to both experts and non-experts;f. Possess learning competences that will enable them to benefit from lifelong learning with a high degree of autonomy. The cycle of studies leading to the Bachelor's degree has 180 ECTS credits and normally takes 6 curricular semesters. In specific cases, the Licenciado degree can include up to 240 ECTS credits, lasting for up to 7 or 8 curricular semesters.Bachelor's degree in NursingNursing is taught in polytechnic education. The cycle of studies leading to the Bachelor's degree in Nursing lasts 8 semesters, comprising at least three years of study or 4600 hours of theoretical and clinical training, representing the length of the theoretical training at least one-third and the clinical training at least half of the minimum duration of training .The cycle of studies leading to the Bachelor's degree in Nursing ensures scientific, technical, human and cultural training for the provision and management of general nursing care to individuals throughout the life cycle, to families and the community, at the different levels of prevention.Bachelor's degree in LawThe cycle of studies leading to the Bachelor's degree in Law is taught in university education and lasts, following an established practice, 8 semesters.Bachelor's degree in Social ServiceThe cycle of studies leading to the Bachelor's degree in Social Service is taught both in polytechnic and university education, but while in polytechnic education lasts the standard 6 semesters, in university education it lasts, following an established practice, 7 semesters.URL: https://www.dges.gov.pt/pt/pesquisa_cursos_instituicoes?plid=372&instituicao=&cursos=&distrito=&tipo_ensino=&tipo_estabelecimento=&area=&tipo_curso=8
EQF Level 6
Diploma in technological specialization (Diploma de especialização tecnológica)

Knowledge
Comprehensive, specialised, factual and theoretical knowledge within a field of  work or study and an awareness of the boundaries of that knowledge.
Skills
A comprehensive range of cognitive and practical skills required to develop  creative solutions to abstract problems.
Attitudes
Exercise management and supervision in contexts of work or study activities where there is unpredictable change. 
Review and develop performance of self and others.

 

  • Technological specialization Courses (CET)
    Technological specialisation courses are specialised training pathways that focus on various technological areas and are designed to prepare students for entry into the labour market, to requalify professionally or to continue studies in higher education. These courses last for about a year and a half and are run by non-higher education establishments.Specialist Technician in Footwear Design General Description:Design and develop footwear according to the fashion trends, the quality, the company’s business strategy and the production technical constraints.Follow the national and international fashion trends regarding products, materials (raw materials and accessories), colours, innovations and market trends;Relate the trends to the mix of products and the company’s markets;Make (manually or using computer systems such as CAD) footwear drafts, sketches or drawings from an original idea or an existing model with the purpose of developing new collections;  Collaborate in the construction and industrialization of prototypes;Structure and plan the development strategy of a collection;Participate in the development and industrialization of products.URL: http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Qualificacoes?Page=&CurrentPerPage=10&Designacao=&AreasFormacaoId=&CodigoArea=&Nivel=5&NivelQEQ=5&RVCC=false&Parciais=false
EQF Level 5
Secondary Education and Professional Certification (Ensino secundário e certificação profissional)

Knowledge
Factual and theoretical knowledge in broad contexts within a field of work or study.
Skills
A range of cognitive and practical skills required to generate solutions to specific problems in a field of work or study.
Attitudes
Exercise self-management within the guidelines of work or study contexts that are usually predictable, but are subject to change. Supervise the routine work of others, taking some responsibility for the evaluation and improvement of work or study activities.

  • Professional Courses
    Professional courses are double certificated and are designed for preparing students both to enter the labour market and continue their studies in non-higher post-secondary courses or in higher education. These courses are three years long, correspond to the 10th, 11th and 12th years of school and are organised into modules. These courses include an on-job training period and at the end of the 12th Grade the assessment of the Final Vocational Examination.Sales and marketing technician General description:Plan, coordinate and execute the activities related to the promotion, marketing and sales of the products and/or services of an enterprise or institution , in collaboration with the marketing and sales manager/director.Plan and conduct research studies in collaboration with the marketing area;Make marketing plans in collaboration with the marketing area;Make e-marketing plans in collaboration with the marketing area;Make, implement and monitor communication plans in collaboration with the marketing area;Make, implement and monitor marketing  plans in collaboration with the marketing area;Carry out the commercial prospection and plan the sale;Inform and clarify the  customer about the products and services;Present the product/service and negotiate with the customer;Register the sale and assure its procedures;Perform the  after-sales monitoring;Manage complaints and litigation situations in the selling process;Manage the customers portfolio;Control the stocks of the products marketed by the enterprise;Organize and foster selling points;Coordinate the activity of the sales teams;Communicate and interact in English  in the sales and marketing context (Level B2 of the Common Europe Framework of Reference for Languages);Make, implement and monitor the marketing operational plan for the for physical and online retail, in collaboration with the hotel manager;Make, implement and monitor the tourism  marketing operational plan, in collaboration with the hotel manager;Communicate and interact in a foreign language  in the sales and marketing context (Level B1 of the Common Europe Framework of Reference for Languages).URL: http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Qualificacoes?Page=&CurrentPerPage=10&Designacao=&AreasFormacaoId=&CodigoArea=&Nivel=4&NivelQEQ=4&RVCC=false&Parciais=false
  • Apprenticeship Courses
    Apprenticeship Courses are initial professional sandwich courses (there being a balance of theoretical and practical training taking place in both the training institution and the company). These courses are aimed at young people under the age of 25 who have successfully completed the 3rd cycle of basic education or who have attended, but not completed, a secondary level course. The courses are double certificated and are  specifically designed to help young people enter the labour market, although they also allow further studies in higher education.Machining and CNC ProgrammingGeneral description:Programme with Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machine-tools and tools designed to work with metal parts.Prepare the work by consulting and analysing technical documents and selecting the appropriate CNC machine-tools and tools to use in the piece manufacturing;Elaborate a manufacturing programme; Monitor the manufacturing programme, in collaboration with the “CNC Machine-tools operator”.URL: http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Qualificacoes?Page=&CurrentPerPage=10&Designacao=&AreasFormacaoId=&CodigoArea=&Nivel=4&NivelQEQ=4&RVCC=false&Parciais=false
  • Education and Training Courses for adults (EFA)

    Adult education and training courses provide the main route by which adults may acquire education and professional qualifications by following education and training pathways.
    These courses are aimed at adults, aged 18 or over, who have low levels of educational or professional qualifications. These will be adults wishing to complete the secondary education and, at the same time, become professionally certified. These courses lead to double certification (school and professional). This education and training system also works in conjunction with procedures for the recognition, validation and certification of competences, in such a way as to make it possible for adults to obtain, through selective training, any competences that they do not yet have for a given qualification.

    Installation Technician of renewable energies thermal systems 
    General description:

    Plan, organize and execute the installation of thermal systems based on renewable energies, within the scope of installation maintenance and repairing for energetic purposes, according to technical rules and regulations, as well as health and safety at work and environmental protection.

    Plan and organize the activities to be developed in the installation, maintenance and repairing of thermal systems based on renewable energies, according to technical rules and regulations, as well as health and safety at work and environmental protection;
    Execute the installation of thermal systems based on renewable energies, according to technical rules and regulations, as well as rules of good practices;
    Execute preventive and corrective maintenance plans in thermal systems based on renewable energies;
    Repair thermal systems based on renewable energies;
    Provide technical assistance to clients, giving advice on the different options and clarifying the functioning of thermal systems based on renewable energies.

    URL: http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Qualificacoes?Page=&CurrentPerPage=10&Designacao=&AreasFormacaoId=&CodigoArea=&Nivel=4&NivelQEQ=4&RVCC=false&Parciais=false

EQF Level 4
Secondary Education Certification (Ensino secundário)

Knowledge
Knowledge of facts, principles, processes and general concepts in a field of work or study
Skills
A range of cognitive and practical skills required to accomplish tasks and solve problems by selecting and applying basic methods, tools, materials and information
Attitudes
Take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study. 
Adapt own behaviour to circumstances in solving problems

 

  • Science and humanities courses
    The science and humanities courses are designed to prepare students for higher education studies. There are four types of courses: Sciences and Technologies, Socioeconomic Sciences, Languages and Humanities and Visual Arts. URL: http://www.dge.mec.pt/cursos-cientifico-humanisticos
  • Education and Training Courses for adults (EFA)
    Adult education and training courses provide the main route by which adults may acquire education and training qualifications by following education and training pathways.These courses are aimed at adults, aged 18 or over, who have low levels of educational qualifications. These will be adults wishing to complete the secondary education.This education and training system also works in conjunction with procedures for the recognition, validation and certification of competences, in such a way as to make it possible for adults to obtain, through selective training, any competences that they do not yet have for a given qualification.
  • Recognition, validation and certification of educational competences (RVCC)

    The recognition, validation and certification of competences process may lead to certification of educational competences (Educational RVCC).
    Adults over the age of 18 may apply for educational RVCC at the secondary level, provided they have at least three years professional experience. On completion of the educational RVCC process – which is based on the Adult Education and Training Key Competences Reference System (secondary level) – and in accordance with the competences held, adults are awarded partial certification, corresponding to a number of secondary-level educational competences, or full certification, corresponding to a level 3 National Qualifications Framework qualification.

EQF Level 3
3rd cycle of basic education/ 3rd cycle of basic education and professional certification (3º Ciclo do ensino básico/ 3º Ciclo do ensino básico e certificação profissional)

Knowlege
Basic factual knowledge of a field of work or study.
Skills:
Basic cognitive and practical skills required to use relevant information in order to carry out tasks and to solve routine problems using simple rules and tools.
Attitudes:
Work or study under supervision, with some autonomy.

  • Basic Education - 3rd cycle
    Basic education is compulsory, unified and free. Basic Education corresponds to the required basic training for all citizens. The students’ average age is 12-15.The 3rd cycle lasts for three years. Teaching is organised by subject and multidisciplinary study areas. There are various teachers for each class, with specialists teaching the various subjects/subject areas.As a whole, and for basic education, all essential and structuring competences are defined in the national curriculum. This defines the profile of exit competences for each of the cycles within the basic education system, as well as the types of educational experiences that all students should have access to.URL: http://www.dge.mec.pt/ensino-basico
  • Education and Training Courses for young people (CEF)
    The education and training courses are designed for young people, aged 15 or over, who are at risk of leaving school early or who have already left the school system before completing their compulsory education. They are also aimed at young people wishing to obtain a professional qualification that will allow them to enter the professional labour market.These courses are structured with sequential entry points which encourage progression through increasingly higher levels of learning, and so help prevent early school leaving. For those young people intending to complete the 3rd cycle of basic education, there are three training paths available (types 2,3,4), all of which lead to school and professional certification.Pastrycook/baker General description:Organize and prepare pastry and baking service, bake cakes and other pastry products, bread and other related products, in production units and food and beverage establishments, not necessarily integrated in hotels, meeting the safety and health standards ensuring customer satisfaction and quality service.Prepare and store the raw ingredients used in the pastry and baking service, ensuring their best condition;Prepare pastry and baking service, performing the mise en place in order to enable the preparation of the necessary products;Bake and decorate cakes and other pastry products, bread and other related products following specific procedures and programming; Clean and tidy the spaces, service and equipment and tools, checking stocks and their condition.URL: http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Qualificacoes?Page=&CurrentPerPage=10&Designacao=&AreasFormacaoId=&CodigoArea=&Nivel=2&NivelQEQ=2&RVCC=false&Parciais=false
  • Recognition, Validation and Certification of Educational and Professional Competences (RVCC)

    The RVCC implements a process of recognition of educational and professional competences.
    The National System for the Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences aims to improve the certification levels of adults. It is aimed at adults over the age of 18 who have not completed the 3rd cycle of basic education, and operates in lifelong learning system. The system allows knowledge and competences acquired over a lifetime, in formal, non-formal and informal learning contexts, to be recognised, validated and certificated. Certification via this pathway has equal stature to any other method of obtaining the same certification and allows the holders to continue their studies.
    This system allows experience-based professional knowledge and competences, acquired in various contexts over a lifetime, to be recognised, validated and certificated. 

    URL: http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Qualificacoes?Page=&CurrentPerPage=10&Designacao=&AreasFormacaoId=&CodigoArea=&Nivel=2&NivelQEQ=2&RVCC=true&RVCC=false&Parciais=false

EQF Level 2
2nd cycle of basic education Certification (2º Ciclo do ensino básico)

Knowledge:
Basic general knowledge.
Skills:
Basic skills required to carry out simple tasks.
Attitudes:
Work or study under direct supervision in a structured context.                           

  • Basic Education - 2nd cycle
    Basic education is compulsory, unified and free. The 2nd cycle lasts two years. The students’ average age is 10-12. As a whole, and for basic education, all essential and structuring competences are defined in the national curriculum. This defines the profile of exit competences for the 2nd cycle of basic education system, as well as the types of educational experiences that all students should have access to.URL: http://www.dge.mec.pt/ensino-basico
  • Education and Training Courses for adults (EFA)
    Adult education and training courses provide the main route by which adults may acquire education and training qualifications by following education and training pathways.These courses are aimed at adults, aged 18 or over, who have low levels of educational or professional qualifications. These will be adults wishing to complete the 2nd cycle of basic education or to complete this schooling and, at the same time, become professionally certified. Depending on the training pathway selected, these courses may lead to school certification alone, to professional certification alone or to a double certification (school and professional). This education and training system also works in conjunction with procedures for the recognition, validation and certification of competences, in such a way as to make it possible for adults to obtain, through selective training, any competences that they do not yet have for a given qualification. 
EQF Level 1