The Index of Immigrant Integration in Romania - IIIR (Unofficial translation)
Indexul Integrarii Imigrantilor in Romania - IIIR (Original language title)
This 2018 report by the project Romanian Centre for Migration Research aims to measure the level of immigrant integration in Romania. In order to do so, the authors set up the Index of Immigrant Integration, a tool consisting of 41 indicators grouped into 8 integration dimensions: general context, housing, education, health, culture and language, civic and social involvement, citizenship and employment.
After determining which integration indicators to track, the authors surveyed beneficiaries of international protection (BIP) and third-country nationals with legal residence in Romania (TCN) on the selected indicators, collecting 537 valid questionnaires for the study. Complementing the survey data is information gathered from public institutions active in the 8 identified integration dimensions.
Results from the survey:
- General context: Even though immigrants make up only 0.34% of the total population, survey respondents reported discrimination from public institutions based on immigration status, race/ethnicity and poor language skills.
- Housing: Most immigrants are living in rented accommodations and pay almost half of their income in rent. They are living in more precarious conditions than their native counterparts and often share accommodations to save money.
- Education: Almost half of survey respondents claimed to have a university degree, and 80% of immigrants included in the survey reported participation in some form of educational programme in Romania. However, the authorities only registered 316 BIP and TCN children for the school year 2015-2016.
- Health: The majority of immigrants consider themselves to be in good health. The total number of immigrants who benefit from health insurance is unknown due to the failure of the responsible institution to register clients by immigration status.
- Culture and language: Half of immigrants affirmed that they have attended language classes and a quarter claimed that they have good knowledge of Romanian culture and history.
- Civic and social involvement: Even though participation of immigrants is relatively common in student and other types of organisations (over 30%), immigrants are reluctant to get involved with trade unions and professional associations. Only 20% have sent remittances to their families.
- Citizenship: Romanian citizenship does not seem to be a target for immigrants. They seem to prefer long-term resident status.
- Employment: Even though a third of respondents were or used to be employed and the average salary is only slightly lower compared with nationals, respondents were predominantly employed through fixed-term contracts. Given the absence of other income and family support, immigrants show more labour market precarity compared with natives.