Being Black in the EU – Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey
This report by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) presents results from the second EU Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), examining the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States. A large majority of survey respondents were first-generation immigrants, hailing from 59 different countries. The survey also reached out to many individuals born in the EU. The report includes FRA’s opinions on how to improve the situation for individuals of African descent.
According to the report, 30% of respondents to EU-MIDIS II said they experienced racist harassment in the five years before the survey, and 21% reported such experiences during the 12 months before the survey. Yet only 14% of victims of racist harassment reported the most recent incident to any authority. Experiences of racist harassment most commonly involved offensive non-verbal cues (22%) or offensive or threatening comments (21%), followed by threats of violence (8%).
The survey results on housing are also striking, showing that people of African descent experience significant racial discrimination in access to housing. Many also face precarious living conditions, which can exacerbate social exclusion. Many respondents said they were prevented from renting accommodation by a private landlord because of their racial or ethnic origin (14%). Some experienced this in municipal or social housing (6%). Only 15% of respondents owned their dwelling, compared to 70% of the general population.