Migrant Integration Governance in Malta
After nearly a century of emigration, Malta started hosting humanitarian migrants from Iraq and former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. As of 2002, amidst negotiations for its accession to the European Union which became effective in 2004, the number of asylum seekers drastically increased. They mostly came from Libya and Syria in the recent years.
On 1 January 2017, 15 407 non-EU foreigners were legally residing in Malta. They represented 3% of the total population. 8 995 had temporary residence permits mainly issued for remunerated activities, education and family reasons.
Most first residence permits issued in 2016 were granted to Serbian, Libyans and Filipinos who constitute the country’s third largest foreign community after British and Italian citizens.
No aggregated data on Maltese citizens with third country background are made available.
Malta adopted its first integration strategy, Integration = Belonging, in December 2017. The strategy foresees the launch of the current national integration programme called I Belong and integration unit of the Ministry of European Affairs and Equality. It further announced the revamp of the national integration portal launched up in 2014 as well as put emphasis on the importance of equality and anti-discrimination mainstreaming across ministries and governance levels, and a person-to-person approach of integration.
The I Belong Programme was launched in July 2018. It is free and voluntary, and can be followed by all Third Country Nationals upon their formal application. Migrants who lodge a request for integration but do not reach the final stage nor obtain a positive assessment will have their integration process stopped but will not lose any benefits achieved. Those who do not lodge an application would be subject to general rights and obligations under the Maltese law and would not benefit from dedicated support.
The Programme comprises two stages: The Pre-Integration Certificate and the Qualification for Permanent Residence Status. The first is awarded to successful participants of accredited Maltese or English classes and basic cultural and societal orientation courses (MQF Level 1), as well as a positive assessment of qualifications, work experience and skills. This initial stage is a requisite for the Qualification for Permanent Residence Status which is open to persons who wish to apply for permanent residence in Malta. This second stage entails:
- a course of at least 100 hours on social, economic, cultural and political history of Malta, with a special focus on the Constitution, democratic values and practical sessions;
- an exam in Maltese (MQF Level 2) which candidates are required to pass with a minimum mark of 65%. Applicants are assigned a caseworker from the Integration Unit for counsel and support. Requirements may also be tailored to the qualifications of the applicants, in conjunction with experts in the relative fields.
☑ language courses
☑ civic education
☒ vocational training
Detailed information about the content of the free programme will be provided to migrants by the Integration Unit and cultural mediators. The Action Plan also foresees the development of an app that will contain updated information.
No national evaluation of Maltese policies for migrants integration nor assessment of integration outcomes of migrants living in Malta has been conducted so far. However, the 2017 Action Plan foresees quarterly monitoring reports and annual evaluation reports of the plan and its actions.
☑ Foreigners Law
Malta’s Immigration Act was first adopted in 1970 and has been amended more than 20 times. The latest changes were made through the Act 36 of 2015 which mainly covers administrative requirements for the issuance of residence permits and the return of TCNs. Dozens of subsidiary legislations regulate specific groups or areas of immigration.
☑ Asylum Law
The Maltese Asylum Law enacted on 1 October 2001 establishes procedures and requirements related to the application for and granting of international protection. It has 8 subsidiary legislations dealing with reception, temporary protection and subsidiary protection, etc.
☒ Integration Law
Malta does not have a self-standing integration law.
☑ Nationality Law
The Citizenship Act of 1964 was last amended with the Act 24 of in August 2017 which introduces new possibilities for athletes, artists and scientists to be granted the Maltese citizenship for ‘exceptional reasons’. It has 3 subsidiary legislations.
There are 4 non-discrimination subsidiary legislations (SL) regulating specific themes. SL 350.26 of 2007 promotes racial equality under the Broadcasting Act. SL 452.95 of 2004 establishes equal treatment under the Employment and Industrial Relations Act. SL 460.16 and SL 460.16 of 2007 provide for equal treatment under the European Union Act. Further amendments to the equality legislation are being discussed.
The Human Rights and Integration Directorate of the Ministry for European Affairs and Equality (previous Ministry for Social Dialogue and Civil Liberties) leads the governance of integration issued in Malta. It is responsible for creating dialogue with social partners and civil society, and promoting civil liberties, equality and anti-discrimination. Its main goal is to ensure that ‘everybody belongs’. It does so by preventing discrimination, segregation and ghettos. The Directorate also oversees the day-to-day implementation of the integration strategy. It therefore processes integration applications, supports migrants in their integration, enhances services, provides training, raises awareness and works on community building.
In addition, the Third Country Nationals Directorate within the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security provides legal aid to asylum seekers.
Due to their limited political and financial power, the main task of local authorities is to promote initiatives put forward by national actors and the civil society.
A Forum on Integration Affairs (FIA) advises the Government on migrant integration-related solutions, necessary amendments to legislations and policies, and improvement of services since 2015. Appointed by the Ministry for European Affairs and Equality, it includes representatives from migrant community organisations active in Malta.
Non-profit organisations and local authorities can apply for financing through several funds. EU’s Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) is the most important one in terms of budget. Coordinated by the Funds and Programmes Division, the national allocation for Malta under AMIF is € 20 314 146. 65% of this amount is allocated to asylum, 22% to integration and 13% on return. The national integration priorities of the Maltese AMIF Programme are to:
- create an Integration Unit within the Ministry of European Affairs and Equality
- increase the number of language courses
- train the immigration police and reception centre on the rights of vulnerable persons.
In addition, national and private funds are made available for service providers and other stakeholders to carry out projects aiming for a better integration of the migrant population.
|Public funding||Private funding|
☑ Providing integration services
- Human Rights and Integration Directorate - Ministry for European Affairs and Equality
- Agency for the Welfare of Asylum Seekers
- Migrant Learners’ Unit - Ministry for Education and Employment
- Migrant Health Liaison Office
- National Commission for the Promotion of Equality
- International Organisation for Migration Malta
☑ Implementing Integration Programme
- Human Human Rights and Integration Directorate - Ministry for European Affairs and Equality
- Aditus Foundation
- African Media Association Malta
- Integra Foundation
- International Association for Refugees Malta
- Jesuit Refugee Service Malta
- People for Change Foundation
- National Platform of Maltese Development NGOs - SKOP
- SOS Malta [L English]
- Migrant Women Association
☑ Publishing statistics
- The Office of the Refugee Commissioner
- National Statistics Office
- UNHCR Malta
- Identity Malta
- International Organisation for Migration Malta
- Malta Human Rights Library