Knowledge for policy

AI Landscape and indicators

The digital transformation of society has just begun: AI is central to the change and offers major opportunities to improve our lives

AI is rapidly applying to almost all economic sectors. However, still there isn't an agree definition, and no official statistics are available yet, so AI is escaping traditional industrial and product classifications.

It is of key importance, though, to develop an overview and analysis of the European AI ecosystem, including research centres, testing facilities, data infrastructures, firms, start-ups and digital innovation hubs (DIH).  A front end specific methodology is exploited to assess AI as an emerging techno-economic segment (TES), capturing the entire emerging ecosystem: who are the key players, in which technologies they specialise, how they are distributed, how they are connected to each other, how innovation spreads through the network, which technologies are consolidating.

AI index

The AI index is a structured set of AI indicators covering the various dimensions of AI relevant for policy making. The index aims at including information about:

  • the assets and potential of Europe in AI 
  • the technical capabilities and performances of the major AI-based systems  
  • the uptake of AI across different industries and sectors in the economy

Data and analysis are build on the initial work by EC JRC in 2018 (PREDICT - AI techno-economic segment, EC JRC Report, forthcoming)

AI Players

There is a strong scale effect due to the size of their economies. When considering GDP or Population, countries like Israel, Singapore or Switzerland stand as the most intense in AI players' presence.


In the context of a strong competition for AI between US and China, Europe needs to embrace the opportunities offered by AI in a way that is human-centred, ethical, secure, and true to its core values. 

AI Frontier research

When considering AI frontier research, the EU is one of the leaders in the research scene, with 30% of papers submitted to the top AI international conferences coming from EU companies or research institutions.

The importance of the EU in this field stems from a lively AI scientific research activity supported by the framework programmes, which fostered an intense inter-country collaboration and high participation from most EU countries.

European Collaboration

Network of collaboration

The EU excellent research in AI stems from lively AI scientific research activity supported by the EU framework programmes for R&D, which have fostered an intense inter-country collaboration and high participation from most EU countries. The graph shows the intense network of collaborations in AI-related research activities, including frontier research, EU funded projects and patenting activity in the period 2009-2018.