Daphne Toolkit

Health Sector Responses to Domestic Violence in Europe: A Comparison of Promising Interventions Models in Maternity and Primary Care Settings and Development of a European Network of Health Professionals Against Domestic Violence

Project Reference Number: 
JUST/2008-1/215 - JLS/2008/DAP3/AG/1215

Health Sector Responses to Domestic Violence in Europe: A Comparison of Promising Interventions Models in Maternity and Primary Care Settings and Development of a European Network of Health Professionals Against Domestic Violence


Improving the protection measures and the responses in maternity and primary care settings for women experiencing domestic violence, ie to reduce bullying against young people (15-18) attending vocational education training (VET) courses by :

1) carrying out a  research on bullying in vocational training

2) designing and testing materials to tackle bullying, targeting trainees, trainers and other VET professionals.

3) awareness-raisinging activities

Specific objectives 

  • to identify and compare different European models for delivering domestic violence interventions in maternity and primary care settings
  • to collect the feedback from teachers in order to evaluate the impact of new ways of working experience:

- Have been acquired as a practice in the centers involved
- have increased their satisfaction with the organization’s membership
- Have created new opportunities for discussion and Exchange between colleagues and with families.

The listening areas, provided after the B-Band project, will be a place of listening and monitoring also able to grasp and understand if the project has contributed to improving the welfare of the school. Therefore they represent the “antennae” internal to the organizations, that can provide useful information and follow up for the implemented projects.



Telephone interviews: with partners established which domestic violence interventions to focus on for the case study interviews. The telephone interviews with partners helped to clarify health systems in each country and availability of support organisations, which informed the development of the interview schedule for the case studies. The telephone interviews were used to guide the selection of interventions and related personnel for the case study interviews.

Case studies: 

qualitative data from 37 interviews with personnel involved in established health sector interventions to address domestic violence in primary and/or maternity care settings. The interviews provided insights about how health professionals and health services can work with NGOs and other social care organisations to support women and children affected by domestic violence. The interviews highlighted intervention successes as well as the challenges that health professionals encounter in supporting patients affected by domestic violence. The varying contexts revealed different approaches to solving problems, particularly around sustainability of interventions, the need for clinical champions and evaluation of interventions. A set of good practice recommendations were developed which will be of use to a range of target groups (health professionals and managers, women’s NGOs, policy makers and funders) regarding how to implement and sustain interventions in health care settings.

Publicity briefing note: contains the key findings from the Daphne project and best practice recommendations for implementing domestic violence interventions in primary and maternity care settings to be disseminated at a number of forthcoming international conferences on gender violence and health (e.g. Families Without Violence in San Francisco, the European Society for Health and Medicine in Germany, British Association for Sexual Health and HIV, WONCA international special interest group on family violence and health) as well as to health managers, policy makers, funders and Ministries of Health, government inter-ministerial groups on gender based violence and NGOs within each country.

Development of the DIVERHSE web site which is a resource for health practitioners, researchers, NGOs, and policy makers involved in developing and delivering domestic violence interventions in health care settings in Europe. The web site contains all project documentation and outputs as well as resources such as guidelines, protocols, training manuals, risk assessment and screening tools and research from European countries: http://diverhse.eu  and http://diverhse.org This valuable resource will assist others in developing interventions through sharing resources. The aim is to facilitate more collaborative research on gender violence and health in Europe.



A mapping survey was developed in collaboration with partners to map established domestic violence interventions based in primary and maternity health care settings in seven countries: United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Spain, Germany, Belgium and Serbia. The survey provided an overview of established intervention in these countries, providing data on the key components including protocols, training, approaches to the identification of domestic violence, care pathways and evaluation of interventions.

The different goals tackled:

 -     Increasing awareness on the characteristics of bullying and acts of arrogance and differentiating them from jokes and games

-     Outline how the theme of bullying impacts on vocational training centers

-     Bring out the unexpressed needs of educators and students, as well as their opinions on how to improve the climate within the vocational training centers

-     Give voice to the needs of active participation of beneficiaries. In particular, the guys ask to participate as actors in the construction of inclusive and welcoming centers. The methodology of the peer education enhances the role of peers in welcoming and empowerment of the guys. Bullying is a violent conflict between guys, so young people trough the peer education become a resource in fighting the climate of violence in the centers

-     Allows space to children’s creativity, who have built an awareness on the issue of bullying and with their language transmitted the message to all the other students.

-     Compared to an initial skepticism, has improved the willingness to share strategies and actions of intervention.


It is important to consider the positive role that peers have in dealing with the hardships during adolescence and it emphasized the importance of engaging more directly the adults in the educational process of the adolescent. It is also important to address the issue of bullying starting from the cultural patterns carried by adults: the way people work and interact with educators and parents directly affects the behaviour of young people both positively and negatively.

An organization can promote/encourage or hinder/discourage the rise of bullying phenomenon of pervasive violence. The context of vocational training , individual centers, through innovative strategies and actions, can develop and promote processes of change and improve their capacity of action. The organizational changes, however, require on one hand competent organizations, flexible and proactive, on the other trainers able to recognize  and take an active role in creating inclusive places. It is therefore necessary to understand how to transform rigid organizational models in structured organizational models, open to changes and able to deal effectively and timely with critical situations.