Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds that can result from combustion processes of organic substances or from heat processing of food – some of them are of particular concern for human health. Within the EU sixteen PAHs need to be monitored.
Human beings are exposed to PAHs via air and drinking water, but mostly by intake of food. Food contamination with PAHs largely arises from production practices, although environmental contamination is also an issue, since they are formed during incomplete combustion processes. Grains and raw products for the production of edible oil (e.g. olives) may be contaminated with PAHs through drying processes whereas food from animal origin is mainly contaminated through processing, e.g. charcoal grilling, roasting, and smoking.
The JRC hosted EURL for PAHs co-ordinates activities related to the development and improvement of methods of analysis for the official control of the maximum levels of PAHs and periodically organises proficiency test to bench-mark the capabilities of the members of the NRL network. Soon a collaboratively evaluated method developed by the EURL will become a European Standard.
The primary tasks are:
- to assist laboratories across the EU Member States with the development and validation of analytical methods,
- to organise comparative tests,
- to help harmonise official controls, and
- to help co-ordinate and develop further the analysis of all PAHs.
The following activities are carried out by the EURL-PAHs on a yearly basis:
- Two proficiency testing (PT) for the determination of the four EU marker PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and chrysene) in various food matrices
- One workshop of the network of appointed National Reference Laboratories;
- Providing support to Directorate-General for Health and Consumers on technical matters related to analysis of PAHs in food; participation in the meetings of National Experts on Environmental and Industrial Contaminants;
- Providing support to standardisation bodies, such as CEN, by participating in the working group of the Technical Committee CEN/TC275/WG13 "Process Contaminants".
Support and visits to NRLs are done on ad-hoc basis upon request.
These activities refer in particular to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011, Commission Regulation (EU) No 1327/2014 and Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1125 setting maximum levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene in various types of food, to Commission Regulation (EC) No 333/2007 as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 836/2011 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of BaP in foodstuffs. To achieve these goals, the EURL works in close collaboration with national reference laboratories (NRLs).
Commissions Regulation (EC) No 776/2006 designates the JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements as the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).