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  1. Maritime safety and security

    Maritime transport enables trade and contacts between all the European nations and provides the main vehicle for European imports and exports to the rest of the world. Almost 90% of the EU external freight trade is seaborne, while short sea shipping repre ...

    05 May 2014

  2. Monitoring container traffic and analysing risk

    90% of the world's cargo is transported in maritime containers, but only 2% is physically inspected by customs authorities, opening the possibility for illicit activities. Today, it is widely believed that the only viable way to control containerised ...

    05 May 2014

  3. Monitoring fiscal imbalances

    The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) is a rule-based framework for the coordination of national fiscal policies in the economic and monetary union (EMU). It was established to safeguard sound public finances, an important requirement for EMU to function pr ...

    19 January 2015

  4. Preventing industrial accidents

    Chemical installations, petrochemical and oil refineries, and storage facilities are hazardous installations which need to be safe and secure from internal (technical failure, human error, etc.) and external (natural hazards, terrorist attacks, etc.) even ...

    30 October 2014

  5. Road safety: the digital tachograph

    Tiredness and speeding are common causes of accidents among drivers of lorries and  coaches. To address this issue, the digital tachograph became mandatory in 2006 on all newly registered commercial trucks and buses across the EU. Since 2004, the JRC has ...

    30 April 2014

  6. Security for privacy and data protection

    The JRC is carrying out research to assess new and emerging information and communication technologies (ICT) in respect to their impact and associated risks for the European citizen, with the aim to identify ways and measures to protect the citizen agains ...

    30 April 2014

  7. Space technologies for disaster risk reduction and response

    Measuring and anticipating the effects of future natural hazards is important in order to implement measures to mitigate the effects of disasters. In all phases of crisis management, satellite-derived information plays an essential role as a synoptic, ind ...

    30 April 2014

  8. Standards for wireless services

    The radio spectrum is the key enabler for innovative wireless services, including digital broadband and smart infrastructures (such as future internet, smart grid and intelligent transport systems). As a limited natural resource, the radio spectrum must b ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Standards in construction: the Eurocodes

    The construction and construction products sector is crucial for the European economy, representing approximately 10% of the EU GDP and providing 20 million jobs. Construction also represents a key component in the quality of life of citizens, as they spe ...

    05 May 2014

  10. Earth observation products

    Earth observation has become an essential element in assessing and addressing global challenges. It can provide synoptic overviews which can be used for situation assessment and change detection. The JRC has longstanding expertise in the use of remote sen ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Strengthening transparency in aid: EU Aid Explorer

    The EU is the largest provider of external aid in the world. Article 210 of the Treaty for the Functioning of the EU foresees that the Union and its member states coordinate their policies on development cooperation and consult each other on their aid pro ...

    30 April 2014

  12. Technological accidents triggered by natural disasters

    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, storms, etc., can damage chemical plants or oil and gas pipelines, causing the release of hazardous materials. These accidents are also called Natech accidents. Currently, there is little knowledge on the dy ...

    30 April 2014

  13. GMOs

    The number of genetically modified crops and the area cultivated with them are steadily increasing worldwide. In the EU, only one GM maize is currently cultivated but many other GMO crops are authorised for food and feed use. However, products derived fro ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Food and feed safety

    Food needs to be nutritious, fresh and above all safe. Consumers should be able to have trust in the products they buy. Recent "food crises" such as dioxins in food and feed, mad cow disease, melamine in milk products, plasticisers in sprot drin ...

    30 April 2014

  15. Atmospheric dispersion

    Atmospheric dispersion models  are used to estimate or to predict the downwind concentration of air pollutants or harmful substances emitted from sources. They have widespread use in situations such as emergency response, the planning of policies and stra ...

    30 April 2014

  16. Aviation security

    Aviation security refers to the prevention of acts of unlawful interference against civil aviation, such as seizure of an aircraft or placing a hazardous device onboard an aircraft. The JRC contributes to aviation security by providing scientific and tech ...

    30 April 2014

  17. Biofuels and bioenergy

    Bioenergy will remain crucial over the next decade in order to reach the renewable energy targets in 2020, which is why the EU member states incorporated the bioenergy option in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). As the JRC aims to pro ...

    30 April 2014

  18. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards

    CBRN is an acronym for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear. It is used to refer to situations in which a threat is manifested by the presence or use of any of such agents. Sometimes the acronym is extended to CBRNE, where the E refers to the th ...

    30 April 2014

  19. Foreign fats in chocolate

    Discontinued activity The so-called Chocolate Directive (Directive 2000/36/EC) allows the addition of up to 5% of vegetable fats other than cocoa butter, the so-called cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs), in chocolate. If CBEs are added, consumers have to be ...

    24 October 2014

  20. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    Hydrogen can store and deliver energy in a widely useable form, and it is one of the most promising alternative fuels for future energy applications. It can be produced pollution-free, without carbon dioxide emissions and it decreases our dependence on dw ...

    30 April 2014

  21. Interoperability and e-mobility

    E-mobility refers to clean and efficient transport, using electric vehicles, powered either by batteries or by hydrogen fuel cells. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) have big growth potential, provided that there are also investments in the development of s ...

    30 April 2014

  22. Metrological tools for safeguard activities

    The JRC organises interlaboratory comparisons for conformity assessment for the IAEA Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) and other laboratories in the field. These quality control programmes are under the accredited aim at the analysis of uranium an ...

    30 April 2014

  23. Natural radiation

    In the absence of nuclear accidents with a major release of radioactive material to the environment, the annual dose received by the public at large is almost completely due to exposure to natural radioactivity. In order to provide the public with a more ...

    30 April 2014

  24. Neutron data

    The JRC is by far the largest provider of neutron data in the European Union. The data is generated by measurements at its two large-scale particle accelerators, and is used for the safe operation of nuclear reactors, handling of nuclear waste and investi ...

    30 April 2014

  25. Organic food and sustainable agriculture

    Food scares have increased consumer awareness in all aspects of food safety and quality. As a result, consumers have increasingly expressed preferences with respect to agricultural practices and geographical origin. Policy makers also have recognised the ...

    30 April 2014