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  1. GMOs

    The number of genetically modified crops and the area cultivated with them are steadily increasing worldwide. In the EU, only one GM maize is currently cultivated but many other GMO crops are authorised for food and feed use. However, products derived fro ...

    30 April 2014

  2. Food and feed safety

    Food needs to be nutritious, fresh and above all safe. Consumers should be able to have trust in the products they buy. Recent "food crises" such as dioxins in food and feed, mad cow disease, melamine in milk products, plasticisers in sprot drin ...

    30 April 2014

  3. Public health

    Maintaining the highest possible level of public health protection, especially for an ageing population, is a key challenge for Europe in the changing global socio-economic landscape. Effective public health policies need to address a wide variety of comp ...

    02 September 2015

  4. Natural and man-made hazards

    Natural and man-made hazards include, for instance, droughts, desertification, floods, fires, earthquakes and dispersion of radioactive gases in the atmosphere.  They have significant social, environmental and economic impacts. The JRC carries out extensi ...

    18 May 2015

  5. Forestry

    35% of the European land area is covered by forests, which represent 25% of the world’s forest resources. Forests provide habitats and nutrients for organisms, modulate hydrologic flow, and help conserve soil resources. They constitute one of the most imp ...

    30 April 2014

  6. Ecosystems and biodiversity

    As biodiversity is coming under serious pressure, with around one in four species currently threatened with extinction, the European Commission has adopted an ambitious EU Biodiversity Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in th ...

    30 April 2014

  7. Coastal and marine environment

    The coastal and marine environment is a major provider of goods and services, such as food, fossil fuels, construction materials, transport and recreation. It also hosts an invaluable biodiversity that forms complex ecosystems which are threatened by huma ...

    30 April 2014

  8. Water

    Water represents a societal challenge. On a planet where 70% of the surface is covered by water, only 1% of this amount is actually usable freshwater. In the European Union, water scarcity and droughts already affect one third of the European territory an ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Soil

    Soil is a natural medium composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms. It is essentially a non-renewable resource which performs many vital functions: food and other biomass production, and storage, filtration and the tra ...

    30 April 2014

  10. Nuclear science base for standardisation

    The JRC is mandated to develop the scientific basis for nuclear safety and security. Emphasis is given to research on fundamental properties and behaviour of actinides, structural and nuclear materials. In support of Union standardisation, the JRC is prov ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Accident prevention

    In the last years Europe witnessed a marked increase in the number and severity of both natural and man-made disasters. Single chemical accident releases involving dangerous substances in chemical installations, petrochemical and oil refineries continue t ...

    30 April 2014

  12. Transport safety and security

    The transport industry directly employs around 10 million people and accounts for about 5% of the GDP. The quality and cost of transport services have a major impact on the ability of businesses to compete, on economic growth and the quality of life. Enha ...

    25 June 2014

  13. Atmospheric dispersion

    Atmospheric dispersion models  are used to estimate or to predict the downwind concentration of air pollutants or harmful substances emitted from sources. They have widespread use in situations such as emergency response, the planning of policies and stra ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Desertification and drought

    Drought and desertification are closely related phenomena. Persisting over months or years, drought can affect large areas and may have serious environmental, social and economic impacts. While drought is a natural phenomenon, whose impacts can be exacerb ...

    18 May 2015

  15. Air quality and greenhouse gases

    Despite continued efforts to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants, air pollution remains a worldwide concern, including in large areas of Europe. Improving air quality while keeping the climate hospitable is a complex process which requires a thorou ...

    19 May 2015

  16. Aviation security

    Aviation security refers to the prevention of acts of unlawful interference against civil aviation, such as seizure of an aircraft or placing a hazardous device onboard an aircraft. The JRC contributes to aviation security by providing scientific and tech ...

    30 April 2014

  17. Financial markets regulation

    The JRC provides statistical analyses, computation tools, and modelling support to the Commission services in charge of financial markets regulation, taxation, and competition policies. The JRC competences on statistics, econometrics, and financial market ...

    01 September 2015

  18. Biofuels and bioenergy

    Bioenergy will remain crucial over the next decade in order to reach the renewable energy targets in 2020, which is why the EU member states incorporated the bioenergy option in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). As the JRC aims to pro ...

    04 September 2015

  19. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards

    CBRN is an acronym for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear. It is used to refer to situations in which a threat is manifested by the presence or use of any of such agents. Sometimes the acronym is extended to CBRNE, where the E refers to the th ...

    30 April 2014

  20. Citizens' digital footprint

    While interacting with digital information systems, citizens create an increasing trail of personal and individual data. These data are recorded and possibly archived somewhere, owned by someone, and potentially used in various ways. The rise of mobile co ...

    30 April 2014

  21. Combating illicit trafficking

    There is strong public support for nuclear security activities due to concerns about nuclear arms proliferation and the threat of nuclear terrorism, which is associated with illicit trafficking of nuclear material. The EU invests significant resources in ...

    01 September 2015

  22. Data exchange standardisation for maritime surveillance

    Currently, EU and national authorities responsible for different aspects of maritime surveillance – such as border control, safety and security, fisheries control, customs, environment or defence – collect data separately and often do not share them betwe ...

    01 September 2015

  23. Earthquakes and tsunamis

    Earthquakes are the natural hazard that generates the largest number of human casualties in the modern society.  Likewise, it is estimated that they are responsible for about 35% of the economic losses generated by natural disasters. Tsunamis are among th ...

    18 May 2015

  24. Emergency support – radioecological monitoring

    In the event of a radiological or nuclear accident where there are releases to the atmosphere or aquatic environment, it is important to rapidly and accurately interpret and evaluate the consequences of the results being measured. The EU information excha ...

    30 April 2014

  25. Ethical aspects of new ICT technologies

    New and emerging Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) regularly bring along specific features that have an impact on security. The user is typically exposed to complex and difficult technology details that are not easily understood, such as te ...

    30 April 2014