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  1. Economic and Monetary Union

    Deepening the Economic and Monetary Union after the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008 remains one of the European Commission's key priorities. The JRC's scientific approach contributes to achieving this goal. Indeed, with its modellin ...

    30 April 2014

  2. Agriculture and food security

    To meet the needs of the world's growing population and taking into account changing consumption patterns, natural resources scarcity and the impact of climate change, food production must be increased in an economically, environmentally, and sociall ...

    30 April 2014

  3. Energy and transport

    Research in energy and transport areas is vital to ensure a sustainable future of our planet in general and a low-carbon economy in particular. The aim of research in these fields is to support EU policies that ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficie ...

    19 January 2015

  4. Environment and climate change

    Protection of the environment for future generations and efforts to limit the impacts of climate change are of the utmost importance in European and world policy. The international community has agreed that global warming should be kept below 2ºC compared ...

    19 January 2015

  5. Information Society

    The JRC supports the European Commission's Agenda for Jobs, Growth, Fairness and Democratic by providing evidence on which to base policy. It communicates closely with policy Directorate-Generals, responds to their questions about science, outlines t ...

    16 March 2015

  6. Innovation and growth

    Research and innovation are acknowledged to play a key role in maintaining sustainable levels of growth and employment. To address the challenges and opportunities facing Europe, innovation has been placed at the core of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart ...

    19 January 2015

  7. Learning and skills

    Learning and skills are key contributors to society and the economy. As modern societies and economies are changing due to, amongst others, globalisation and technological progress, a fundamental transformation of education and training (E&T) througho ...

    30 April 2014

  8. Rural development

    Rural areas in the EU represent, according to a standard definition, 91 % of the territory and 56 % of the population. Many of these rural areas face significant environmental and socio-economic challenges. Agricultural practices put pressure on the rural ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Impacts of climate change

    The European Commission is working to make the European economy more climate-friendly with both mitigation and adaptation policies.   Mitigation policies aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and so produce benefits in terms of avoided climate damages; a ...

    30 April 2014

  10. Costs and benefits of climate policies

    Through its international agreements the EU has endorsed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) by 20% by 2020. This will redirect EU's energy economy towards a highly efficient and low CO2 one with an important impact on climate change mitigation ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Sustainable Product Policy

    The JRC supports the implementation of European sustainable product policies such as EU Ecolabel, Green Public Procurement, Eco-design of Energy-Related Products (ErP),and Energy Label. Its main tasks are: providing all technical, economic and environment ...

    30 April 2014

  12. ICT industry analysis

    The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry and ICT-enabled innovation in other industries and services make an increasingly important contribution to the economic growth of advanced economies. ICT industry contribution to growth and jobs ...

    30 April 2014

  13. Transport sector economic analysis

    Transport plays an important role in today's economy and society and has a large impact on growth and employment. The transport industry directly employs around 10 million people and accounts for about 5% of gross domestic product (GDP). Effective tr ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Employability and social inclusion

    Since the economic downturn, unemployment is reaching unprecedented levels. According to Eurostat, in July 2013, the unemployment rate in EU28 was 11%, amounting to almost 27 million men and women unemployed. Furthermore, unemployment is hitting more seve ...

    15 July 2014

  15. Behaviour and ICT policy

    In the policy area of the information study, behavioural economics studies individuals' interactions with digital technology, or digital behaviour. The term is not new.  It has already been studied by consulting companies seeking to provide an overvi ...

    05 February 2015

  16. Agricultural monitoring

    Agricultural monitoring is carried out at the JRC mainly to distinguish, identify and measure the main crop production areas in Europe, estimate production early in the year and check the validity of farmers’ applications for EU subsidies. The European Co ...

    30 April 2014

  17. Crop yield forecasting

    Crop yield forecasts and crop production estimates are necessary at EU and Member State level to provide the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) decision makers with timely information for rapid decision-making during the growing season. Estimates of cr ...

    30 April 2014

  18. Energy efficiency

    Improving the efficiency with which energy is consumed by end-users is a central theme of the European Union's energy policy. Energy efficiency is one of the fastest and most cost effective ways to reduce CO 2 emissions, contribute to energy security ...

    30 April 2014

  19. Digital living

    Based on their enabling characteristics, ICTs permit all sectors in society to influence the way we live, work and behave. With citizens becoming active participants in the European Knowledge Society and thus being able to consume and produce digital cont ...

    30 April 2014

  20. Digital economy

    The shift from analogue to digital information technology started more than half a century ago with the invention of the first computers. Over the last two decades, the rapid decline in computing costs, the emergence of the internet as a communication too ...

    19 February 2015

  21. Environmental monitoring

    Environmental monitoring can be described as a programme of recurring, systematic studies that reveals the state of the environment. The specific aspects of the environment to be studied are determined by environmental objectives and environmental legisla ...

    30 April 2014

  22. Agricultural biodiversity

    Agricultural land covers almost half of Europe’s territory. Technological development, mechanisation, agro-chemicals and genetic research have led to structural modifications in farming practices and put pressure on the environment, leading to soil deplet ...

    30 April 2014

  23. Climate change mitigation

    The EU has a stated objective of limiting global climate change to a temperature increase of 2ºC above preindustrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2007 that reaching that target would require the reduction of glo ...

    30 April 2014

  24. Forest adaptation to climate change

    Even if emissions are stabilised relatively soon, climate change and its effects will last many years, and adaptation will be necessary. The need for an Adaptation Clearinghouse was identified in the Commission’s 2009 White Paper “ Adapting to climate cha ...

    30 April 2014

  25. Hazards and Risks of climate change impacts

    Due to Climate Change, frequencies of extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and heat waves are expected to increase in the future. The JRC works on predicting and making impact assessments of such events. Floods To increase preparedness for floo ...

    30 April 2014