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  1. Standards

    Standards stimulate and enable innovation and competiveness in Europe. Industry needs framework conditions which are the basis on which to invest, innovate and gain global market share in an increasingly competitive world. Standardisation brings efficienc ...

    30 April 2014

  2. Safety and Security

    The JRC provides European policy makers with scientific and technological advice on safety, security and stability within the EU and beyond. Research, analysis and in-house developed tools support EU policies on border security, including maritime borders ...

    19 January 2015

  3. Agriculture and food security

    To meet the needs of the world's growing population and taking into account changing consumption patterns, natural resources scarcity and the impact of climate change, food production must be increased in an economically, environmentally, and sociall ...

    30 April 2014

  4. Energy and transport

    Research in energy and transport areas is vital to ensure a sustainable future of our planet in general and a low-carbon economy in particular. The aim of research in these fields is to support EU policies that ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficie ...

    19 January 2015

  5. Environment and climate change

    Protection of the environment for future generations and efforts to limit the impacts of climate change are of the utmost importance in European and world policy. The international community has agreed that global warming should be kept below 2ºC compared ...

    19 January 2015

  6. Information Society

    The JRC supports the European Commission's Agenda for Jobs, Growth, Fairness and Democratic by providing evidence on which to base policy. It communicates closely with policy Directorate-Generals, responds to their questions about science, outlines t ...

    16 March 2015

  7. Innovation and growth

    Research and innovation are acknowledged to play a key role in maintaining sustainable levels of growth and employment. To address the challenges and opportunities facing Europe, innovation has been placed at the core of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart ...

    19 January 2015

  8. Digital Earth

    Digital Earth is a concept of an interactive digital replica of the entire planet that can facilitate a shared understanding of the multiple relationships between the physical and natural environments and society. To do so, it needs to be accessible globa ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Impacts of climate change

    The European Commission is working to make the European economy more climate-friendly with both mitigation and adaptation policies.   Mitigation policies aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and so produce benefits in terms of avoided climate damages; a ...

    30 April 2014

  10. Green and resource-efficient Europe

    Transitioning to a green and resource-efficient economy is seen to be a key step towards a sustainable, reindustrialised Europe. The development of a circular economy that is both socially inclusive and environmentally responsible requires systemic change ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Forestry

    35% of the European land area is covered by forests, which represent 25% of the world’s forest resources. Forests provide habitats and nutrients for organisms, modulate hydrologic flow, and help conserve soil resources. They constitute one of the most imp ...

    30 April 2014

  12. Ecosystems and biodiversity

    As biodiversity is coming under serious pressure, with around one in four species currently threatened with extinction, the European Commission has adopted an ambitious EU Biodiversity Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in th ...

    30 April 2014

  13. Coastal and marine environment

    The coastal and marine environment is a major provider of goods and services, such as food, fossil fuels, construction materials, transport and recreation. It also hosts an invaluable biodiversity that forms complex ecosystems which are threatened by huma ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Water

    Water represents a societal challenge. On a planet where 70% of the surface is covered by water, only 1% of this amount is actually usable freshwater. In the European Union, water scarcity and droughts already affect one third of the European territory an ...

    30 April 2014

  15. Soil

    Soil is a natural medium composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms. It is essentially a non-renewable resource which performs many vital functions: food and other biomass production, and storage, filtration and the tra ...

    30 April 2014

  16. Desertification and drought

    Drought and desertification are closely related phenomena. Persisting over months or years, drought can affect large areas and may have serious environmental, social and economic impacts. While drought is a natural phenomenon, whose impacts can be exacerb ...

    25 March 2015

  17. Fires

    Forest fires occur regularly all over Europe and it is very likely that the damage they cause will increase in the future. The JRC monitors European forests to continually assess the risk of fires, provide early alerts and provide information on active fi ...

    30 April 2014

  18. Monitoring of climate and climate change

    Coherent greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories and projections are needed to help improve the effectiveness of climate policy. The JRC supports long-term GHG monitoring, in particular within the European Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) Inf ...

    30 April 2014

  19. Soil protection

    Soil provides the main foundation for human activity and housing. It is a limited and fragile resource, that Europe's environment policy seeks to protect. Soil data and information are relevant for a number of EU policy areas: food security, agricult ...

    30 April 2014

  20. Sustainable management of natural resources in ACP countries

    According to the United Nations, at least 17% of the Earth’s surface waters and 10% of coastal and marine areas should be protected. The current 13 000 protected areas are insufficient to ensure the survival of the Earth’s biodiversity. EU development pol ...

    30 April 2014

  21. Water biodiversity

    Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded and threatened ecosystems at the global scale. Given the likelihood that demand for available water resources in Europe and worldwide will increase in the future, water ecosystem services need to be protec ...

    30 April 2014

  22. Water governance

    Rivers and seas are a common resource for the countries that share their basins. A key example in Europe is the Danube river which is 2 800 km long, passes through 10 countries and receives water from 19 countries. The JRC’s activities focus on assessing ...

    30 April 2014

  23. Earth observation

    Earth observation is the gathering of information about planet Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems via remote sensing technologies, usually involving satellites carrying imaging devices. Earth observation is used to monitor and assess the st ...

    30 April 2014

  24. Natural and man-made hazards

    Natural and man-made hazards include, for instance, droughts, desertification, floods, fires, earthquakes and dispersion of radioactive gases in the atmosphere.  They have significant social, environmental and economic impacts. The JRC carries out extensi ...

    25 March 2015

  25. Floods

    The JRC’s research on floods focuses on improving preparedness and response during a flood crisis, mainly through early warning and monitoring systems, but also through the assessment of mitigation and prevention measures. It has developed several systems ...

    30 April 2014