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  1. Alternatives to animal testing and safety assessment of chemicals

    Chemical safety assessment has traditionally been based on animal testing but the EU has been promoting for many years the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal testing. Further it is also considered that traditional risk assessment approaches ...

    30 April 2014

  2. Clearinghouse

    Operating experience from the 440 nuclear reactors producing electricity worldwide forms a valuable source of information. The European Union has set up a regional network to improve the collecting and implementing of operational experience, called the &q ...

    30 April 2014

  3. Natural radiation

    In the absence of nuclear accidents with a major release of radioactive material to the environment, the annual dose received by the public at large is almost completely due to exposure to natural radioactivity. In order to provide the public with a more ...

    30 April 2014

  4. Radioactive environmental monitoring

    Monitoring artificial radioactivity in the environment is of utmost importance in order to verify that there is compliance with the Basic Safety Standards (Euratom/96/29 currently being revised) and to monitor tendencies over time. Under the Euratom Treat ...

    30 April 2014

  5. Reactor safety

    The EU is concerned with ensuring that the highest standards of reactor safety are adopted and maintained. The Council Directive 2009/71/EURATOM establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations stipulates the application ...

    30 April 2014

  6. Road safety: the digital tachograph

    Tiredness and speeding are common causes of accidents among drivers of lorries and  coaches. To address this issue, the digital tachograph became mandatory in 2006 on all newly registered commercial trucks and buses across the EU. Since 2004, the JRC has ...

    30 April 2014

  7. Standards in construction: the Eurocodes

    The construction and construction products sector is crucial for the European economy, representing approximately 10% of the EU GDP and providing 20 million jobs. Construction also represents a key component in the quality of life of citizens, as they spe ...

    05 May 2014

  8. Aviation safety

    The causes of aviation accidents are complex to understand: rather than by a single failure, they are usually caused by a sequence of events linked one to the other. Often, the same kind of event has already happened somewhere else in the world without ca ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Railways safety

    The JRC, together with the European Railways Agency (ERA), has developed the European Railway Accident Information Links (ERAIL) system, where all railway accident reports and the biannual safety performance indicators of the Member States are recorded, a ...

    30 April 2014

  10. Nuclear accident modelling

    Since the 90s, the JRC has participated in many experimental and analytical activities in the field of Severe Accidents for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Several experimental facilities were operating during many years within JRC premises (FARO, KROTOS, ST ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Safe mobility for the visually impaired

    The JRC has developed SESAMONET- SEcure and SAfe MObility NETwork- designed to improve ease of movement for visually impaired people. The idea consists in using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) passive transponders (i.e. microchips) to create a path ...

    25 June 2014

  12. Security of the supply chain

    Today in the world millions of shipping containers constantly travel and cross national borders. Cargo containers are considered as a weak link in the supply chain as they can be potentially exploited to defraud customs, introduce illicit cargo and breach ...

    27 January 2015

  13. Global safety and security

    Security is a pre-requisite for stability and growth. The Lisbon Treaty recognises that protecting the EU’s prosperity and security requires that the EU play an active role in tackling global challenges such as poverty, conflict and humanitarian disasters ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Nuclear safety

    In the area of nuclear safety, the JRC addresses the key science and technology challenges to maintain and improve safety level and competitiveness of fission technologies, covering existing (GenII), evolutionary (GenIII) and advanced/sustainable (GenIV) ...

    30 April 2014

  15. Food and feed safety

    Food needs to be nutritious, fresh and above all safe. Consumers should be able to have trust in the products they buy. Recent "food crises" such as dioxins in food and feed, mad cow disease, melamine in milk products, plasticisers in sprot drin ...

    30 April 2014

  16. Accident prevention

    In the last years Europe witnessed a marked increase in the number and severity of both natural and man-made disasters. Single chemical accident releases involving dangerous substances in chemical installations, petrochemical and oil refineries continue t ...

    30 April 2014

  17. Transport safety and security

    The transport industry directly employs around 10 million people and accounts for about 5% of the GDP. The quality and cost of transport services have a major impact on the ability of businesses to compete, on economic growth and the quality of life. Enha ...

    25 June 2014

  18. Global health security and support

    The Global Health Security Initiative is an international partnership of the G7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States), Mexico, the European Commission and the World Health Organisation (WHO) to strengt ...

    30 April 2014

  19. Improving safety in construction

    Earthquakes, explosions, impacts and blast threaten the safety of buildings, construction works and infrastructure. Large-scale testing and numerical simulation are complementary tools to study the effects of such events on the built environment and devel ...

    28 April 2015

  20. Maritime safety and security

    Maritime transport enables trade and contacts between all the European nations and provides the main vehicle for European imports and exports to the rest of the world. Almost 90% of the EU external freight trade is seaborne, while short sea shipping repre ...

    05 May 2014

  21. Nuclear fuel safety

    Nuclear fuel safety is the basic component of all safety requirements associated with nuclear energy production. The ultimate goal is to ensure that fuel rods in the reactor core will fulfil their main safety function, which consists of retaining all radi ...

    30 April 2014

  22. Reference materials for food analysis

    The certified reference materials distributed by the JRC give measurement laboratories a means to validate analytical methods and to assess the accuracy of their measurement results. Over the years, the JRC has developed a broad variety of food related re ...

    30 April 2014

  23. Nuclear waste management and decommissioning

    Radioactive waste management in the EU has its legal basis through the EURATOM treaty and the recently adopted “Waste Directive” (2011/70/EURATOM). The Directive provides for Responsible and Safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. It builds o ...

    30 April 2014

  24. Bridge Design to Eurocodes – Worked examples

    JRC Scientific and Technical Research Report providing worked examples for a bridge structure designed following the Eurocodes. It summarizes important points of the Eurocodes for the design of concrete, steel and composite road bridges, including foundat ...

    30 April 2014

  25. Strongly coupled binuclear uranium–oxo complexes from uranyl oxo rearrangement and reductive silylation

    Article describing the synthesis, structure, reactivity and magnetic properties of a binuclear uranium–oxo complex. The most common motif in uranium chemistry is the d0f0 uranyl ion [UO2]21 in which the oxo groups are rigorously linear and inert. Alternat ...

    30 April 2014