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  1. Environment and climate change

    Protection of the environment for future generations and efforts to limit the impacts of climate change are of the utmost importance in European and world policy. The international community has agreed that global warming should be kept below 2ºC compared ...

    19 January 2015

  2. Preventing industrial accidents

    Chemical installations, petrochemical and oil refineries, and storage facilities are hazardous installations which need to be safe and secure from internal (technical failure, human error, etc.) and external (natural hazards, terrorist attacks, etc.) even ...

    30 October 2014

  3. Radioactive environmental monitoring

    Monitoring artificial radioactivity in the environment is of utmost importance in order to verify that there is compliance with the Basic Safety Standards (Euratom/96/29 currently being revised) and to monitor tendencies over time. Under the Euratom Treat ...

    30 April 2014

  4. Reference materials for environmental analysis

    The protection of the environment is amongst the highest priorities worldwide. The identification of environmental pollution is based on monitoring campaigns that periodically assess the quality of our water, soil and air. The reliability and comparabilit ...

    30 April 2014

  5. Sustainable production: best available techniques

    Industrial production processes account for a considerable share of the overall pollution in Europe. The EU has a set of common rules for permitting and controlling industrial installations described in the Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (IED). ...

    30 April 2014

  6. Technological accidents triggered by natural disasters

    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, storms, etc., can damage chemical plants or oil and gas pipelines, causing the release of hazardous materials. These accidents are also called Natech accidents. Currently, there is little knowledge on the dy ...

    30 April 2014

  7. Waste and recycling

    Today more than ever, the European Commission is working hard to preserve our limited resources. In 2004, it launched the Thematic Strategy on Prevention and Recycling of Waste. This long-term strategy aims at helping Europe to become a recycling society ...

    30 April 2014

  8. Digital Earth

    Digital Earth is a concept of an interactive digital replica of the entire planet that can facilitate a shared understanding of the multiple relationships between the physical and natural environments and society. To do so, it needs to be accessible globa ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Costs and benefits of climate policies

    Through its international agreements the EU has endorsed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) by 20% by 2020. This will redirect EU's energy economy towards a highly efficient and low CO2 one with an important impact on climate change mitigation ...

    30 April 2014

  10. Sustainable Product Policy

    The JRC supports the implementation of European sustainable product policies such as EU Ecolabel, Green Public Procurement, Eco-design of Energy-Related Products (ErP),and Energy Label. Its main tasks are: providing all technical, economic and environment ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Green and resource-efficient Europe

    Transitioning to a green and resource-efficient economy is seen to be a key step towards a sustainable, reindustrialised Europe. The development of a circular economy that is both socially inclusive and environmentally responsible requires systemic change ...

    30 April 2014

  12. Integrated sustainability assessments

    Sustainability science is a solution-oriented discipline that studies the complex relationship between nature and humankind, conciliating the mutually influenced scientific and social reference paradigms, and covering multi-temporal and spatial scales. Th ...

    30 April 2014

  13. Disaster risk management

    Natural and man-made hazards continuously threaten population in Europe and beyond. Managing risks associated with hazards is based on sound policy making in prevention, preparedness, response, and reconstruction activities. The JRC carries out extensive ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Best environmental management practice

    Organisations of all sizes and kinds have a large scope for improving their environmental performance. With motivations ranging from eco-efficiency to reputation and concerns about the sustainability of their business, many organisations try to reduce the ...

    11 June 2015

  15. Earthquakes and tsunamis

    Earthquakes are the natural hazard that generates the largest number of human casualties in the modern society.  Likewise, it is estimated that they are responsible for about 35% of the economic losses generated by natural disasters. Tsunamis are among th ...

    18 May 2015

  16. Input-Output economics

    Sustainable production and consumption can only be addressed by giving due consideration to economic, social and environmental variables. Policies and measures oriented to support growth and employment must be compatible with long-term sustainability and ...

    30 May 2015

  17. Sustainable production and consumption

    Sustainable development stands for meeting the needs of present generations without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Social, economic and environmental issues are inseparable and interdependent. The EU has mainstream ...

    30 April 2014

  18. Ocean Colour: Essential climate variables

    Ocean colour remote sensing primarily aims to derive the spectrum of marine surface reflectance from satellite observations. In turn, marine reflectance can be used to determine inherent optical properties (absorption and back-scattering coefficients) and ...

    20 March 2015

  19. Impacts of climate change

    The European Commission is working to make the European economy more climate-friendly with both mitigation and adaptation policies.   Mitigation policies aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and so produce benefits in terms of avoided climate damages; a ...

    30 April 2014

  20. Earth observation

    Earth observation is the gathering of information about planet Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems via remote sensing technologies, usually involving satellites carrying imaging devices. Earth observation is used to monitor and assess the st ...

    30 April 2014

  21. Environmental monitoring

    Environmental monitoring can be described as a programme of recurring, systematic studies that reveals the state of the environment. The specific aspects of the environment to be studied are determined by environmental objectives and environmental legisla ...

    30 April 2014

  22. Natural and man-made hazards

    Natural and man-made hazards include, for instance, droughts, desertification, floods, fires, earthquakes and dispersion of radioactive gases in the atmosphere.  They have significant social, environmental and economic impacts. The JRC carries out extensi ...

    18 May 2015

  23. Forestry

    35% of the European land area is covered by forests, which represent 25% of the world’s forest resources. Forests provide habitats and nutrients for organisms, modulate hydrologic flow, and help conserve soil resources. They constitute one of the most imp ...

    30 April 2014

  24. Ecosystems and biodiversity

    As biodiversity is coming under serious pressure, with around one in four species currently threatened with extinction, the European Commission has adopted an ambitious EU Biodiversity Strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in th ...

    30 April 2014

  25. Coastal and marine environment

    The coastal and marine environment is a major provider of goods and services, such as food, fossil fuels, construction materials, transport and recreation. It also hosts an invaluable biodiversity that forms complex ecosystems which are threatened by huma ...

    30 April 2014