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  1. Energy efficiency

    Improving the efficiency with which energy is consumed by end-users is a central theme of the European Union's energy policy. Energy efficiency is one of the fastest and most cost effective ways to reduce CO 2 emissions, contribute to energy security ...

    30 April 2014

  2. Renewable energy

    The European Union has set out plans for a new energy strategy based on a more secure, sustainable and low-carbon economy. It has committed itself to achieve at least 27% share of renewables by 2030 with the aim of encouraging private investment in infras ...

    04 February 2015

  3. Nuclear energy

    In the EU, the decision to use nuclear power or not is the prerogative of the Member States. Fourteen out of twenty-seven EU Member States have nuclear power plants in operation (Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Nether ...

    30 April 2014

  4. Composite indicators

    Indices aggregate multi-dimensional processes into simplified concepts. The JRC has developed methodologies to construct robust composite indicators that can provide policy-makers with the ‘big picture’ on matters that are crucial for the EU, helping to s ...

    24 June 2014

  5. Alternatives to animal testing and safety assessment of chemicals

    Chemical safety assessment has traditionally been based on animal testing but the EU has been promoting for many years the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal testing. Further it is also considered that traditional risk assessment approaches ...

    30 April 2014

  6. Nanotechnology

    Nanotechnology is a key enabling technology and has great potential for addressing societal challenges including energy supply and health care. Nonetheless, the use of nanomaterials also raises safety concerns, which need to be addressed in a Europe-wide ...

    30 April 2014

  7. Aviation security

    Aviation security refers to the prevention of acts of unlawful interference against civil aviation, such as seizure of an aircraft or placing a hazardous device onboard an aircraft. The JRC contributes to aviation security by providing scientific and tech ...

    30 April 2014

  8. Biofuels and bioenergy

    Bioenergy will remain crucial over the next decade in order to reach the renewable energy targets in 2020, which is why the EU member states incorporated the bioenergy option in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). As the JRC aims to pro ...

    30 April 2014

  9. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards

    CBRN is an acronym for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear. It is used to refer to situations in which a threat is manifested by the presence or use of any of such agents. Sometimes the acronym is extended to CBRNE, where the E refers to the th ...

    30 April 2014

  10. Citizens' digital footprint

    While interacting with digital information systems, citizens create an increasing trail of personal and individual data. These data are recorded and possibly archived somewhere, owned by someone, and potentially used in various ways. The rise of mobile co ...

    30 April 2014

  11. Clearinghouse

    Clearinghouse are topical studies which analyse in depth operating experience and propose recommendations for a specific topic such as construction of new nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel, maintenance, and external ...

    30 April 2014

  12. Data exchange standardisation for maritime surveillance

    Currently, EU and national authorities responsible for different aspects of maritime surveillance – such as border control, safety and security, fisheries control, customs, environment or defence – collect data separately and often do not share them betwe ...

    30 April 2014

  13. Ethical aspects of new ICT technologies

    New and emerging Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) regularly bring along specific features that have an impact on security. The user is typically exposed to complex and difficult technology details that are not easily understood, such as te ...

    30 April 2014

  14. Foreign fats in chocolate

    Discontinued activity The so-called Chocolate Directive (Directive 2000/36/EC) allows the addition of up to 5% of vegetable fats other than cocoa butter, the so-called cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs), in chocolate. If CBEs are added, consumers have to be ...

    24 October 2014

  15. Fundamental properties of actinide materials

    Actinides, the backbone of nuclear fission technologies, find applications in many strategic fields, from space exploration to medical diagnostic and treatments. However, due to the risk associated with their radio-toxicity, it is necessary to carry out r ...

    30 April 2014

  16. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    Hydrogen can store and deliver energy in a widely useable form, and it is one of the most promising alternative fuels for future energy applications. It can be produced pollution-free, without carbon dioxide emissions and it decreases our dependence on dw ...

    30 April 2014

  17. Interoperability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    The Galileo programme is Europe’s initiative for state-of-the-art Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), providing a highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. To be successful, Galileo needs be inter-operable with ...

    30 April 2014

  18. Medical applications of radionuclides and targeted alpha therapy

    Cancer is one of the main health problems of today. Unfortunately, the treatments that are currently available, even though often effective, cannot permanently cure the majority of cancers. This is typically true for cancers that have formed metastases an ...

    30 April 2014

  19. Monitoring container traffic and analysing risk

    90% of the world's cargo is transported in maritime containers, but only 2% is physically inspected by customs authorities, opening the possibility for illicit activities. Today, it is widely believed that the only viable way to control containerised ...

    05 May 2014

  20. Monitoring human resources in the nuclear energy sector

    In order to determine the situation of nuclear-educated human resources in Europe (i.e. supply and demand), assess the trends and suggest policy options for improvement, a European Human Resources Observatory in the Nuclear Energy Sector (EHRO-N) has been ...

    30 April 2014

  21. Natural radiation

    In the absence of nuclear accidents with a major release of radioactive material to the environment, the annual dose received by the public at large is almost completely due to exposure to natural radioactivity. In order to provide the public with a more ...

    30 April 2014

  22. Non-proliferation

    Information collection and analysis of proliferation concerns play an increasing role in nuclear security in general and in nuclear safeguards in particular. The JRC considers different types of information to deal with security threats, mainly at nationa ...

    30 April 2014

  23. Nuclear materials under extreme conditions

    Nuclear fuels generate very high levels of radiation and heat. In order to understand and reliably predict the behaviour of the fuel matrix and the cladding material, it is essential to have a fundamental knowledge of the high temperature behaviour of the ...

    30 April 2014

  24. Nuclear safeguards

    Research and development activities are performed at the JRC to provide efficient and effective technologies to ensure that current and future nuclear fuel systems can be properly safeguarded and the EU obligations under non-proliferation treaties are met ...

    30 April 2014

  25. Organic food and sustainable agriculture

    Food scares have increased consumer awareness in all aspects of food safety and quality. As a result, consumers have increasingly expressed preferences with respect to agricultural practices and geographical origin. Policy makers also have recognised the ...

    30 April 2014