It is important to protect critical buildings (shopping centres, government buildings and embassies), infrastructure and utilities, train and underground stations against being damaged, destroyed or disrupted by deliberate acts of terrorism, criminal activity and malicious behaviour. Normal regulations and building guidelines do not generally take into account these threats. The introduction of regulations or guidelines should support the resilience of the buildings and infrastructure against explosive incidents.
In order to protect the infrastructure, methods are required to quantify the resistance of structural elements against explosive loading and to assess the hazards resulting from failure of an element. The applicable state-of-the-art techniques may be either experimental or numerical methods, or a combination of both.
Therefore, the thematic group (TG) on the resistance of structures to explosion effects was formed in order to bring the required expertise together, make it commonly available and to find and define harmonised methods and solutions which can be provided to the decision-makers responsible for critical infrastructure protection. This first report of the TG gives a comprehensive summary of the existing methods which can be used to analyse and test the resistance of glazing and windows under blast-loading conditions.
Within this context, the experimental methods of testing using high explosives and testing using blast simulators called shock tubes is presented and explained. In addition, the potential of numerical simulations is highlighted in terms of their applicability to the different glass materials.
A short, comprehensive theoretical background is given for each method. Based on this, each method is described with its requirements, realisation and the related measurement techniques. Furthermore, an interpretation of the measurements is highlighted.
For the numerical simulations, the basic discretisation and calculations schemes are presented in combination with the available constitutive material descriptions for the different significant materials. Finally the chances for verification and validation of the numerical results are presented.
Hence the report builds the basis for an actual evaluation of the different test methods and their applicability to certain problems, and provides helpful information for critical infrastructure stakeholders, owners and operators considering the structural resistance of the infrastructure to the effects of explosion in a comprehensive document.
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Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen
Publications Office of the European Union