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The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
The quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway (qAOP) concept has started to gain interest due to its potential regulatory applications in chemical risk assessment. Even though an increasing number of qAOP models are being proposed as computational predictive tools, there is no framework to guide their development and assessment. As such, the objectives of this review were to (i) analyse the definitions of qAOPs given by the scientific community, (ii) define a set of essential components for the development of a qAOP and (iii) identify and assess the existing published qAOP models and associated software tools. The review offers an overview of how the qAOP concept has advanced and how it can aid toxicity assessment in the future. The challenges, advantages and disadvantages of using probabilistic and mechanistic quantitative approaches are also described. Further efforts are required to achieve validation, harmonisation and regulatory acceptance of qAOP models.