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Patterns of immigrants’ integration in European labour markets

Abstract: 
This report looks at employment rates of immigrants and systematically compares them with employment rates of natives. The first finding is that employment gaps vary substantially across Member States, and that for some these gaps are persistent in the period considered (2008-2015). In addition, there is little evidence of overall convergence between Member States in the reduction of these gaps over this period. Having looked at the trends in employment rates since 2008, this report then turns to the likely reasons for the gaps. By drawing on the academic and policy literature, it singles out some of the most likely determinants of these gaps and unpacks them according to their relationships with length of residency, country of origin, education, and skills. Finally, the last section provides a brief overview of the evolution of these gaps in the context of Member States’ active labour market policies. The last section outlines the main findings.
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