Recently, the European Union (EU) adopted the Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, which defines minimum requirements on alternative fuels infrastructure build up, including recharging points for electric vehicles. Moreover, the European Commission is currently working towards a Communication on decarbonising the transport sector, including an action plan on second and third generation biofuels and other alternative, sustainable fuels. Various Member States have set up incentives to foster electrified or low-emission vehicle purchases. The Joint Research Centre, as the European Commission's in-house science service, has created a suite of models on electro-mobility, which serves to assess policies towards electrification of road transport and their effects on energy demand, emission reduction and costs. The models are soft-linked and the structure is flexible enough to make sure that the appropriate tools can be used for various studies. The models within this suite include:
• A Market Agent model that captures the dynamics between automobile manufacturers, infrastructure providers, authorities and users in order to model competition between and transition of current and future powertrain technologies;
• A Fleet Impact tool, containing up-to-date vehicle stock data and energy and emission factors of all vehicle types in the EU, as well as fuel consumption and (real world & type approval) emission calculation, both for Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Wheel
• An EV-Charging model that estimates the energy-consumption of electric vehicles and calculates their power demand (load) on the basis of usage statistics (e.g., daily distance travelled, parking duration, number of daily trips)
• An Energy System Model (JRC-EU-TIMES) that models energy technologies’ uptake and deployment and their interaction with the energy infrastructure from an energy systems perspective
• Various others depending on the needs of the assessment to be made.
This paper shows key results of studies that were performed with the JRC integrated electro-mobility modelling platform.