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Laboratory and on-road evaluation of a GPF-equipped gasoline vehicle


The introduction of a solid particle number limit for vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines resulted in a lot of research and improvements in this field in the last decade. The requirement to also fulfil the limit in the recently introduced real-driving emissions (RDE) regulation led to the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in European vehicle models. As the pre-standardisation research was based on engines, retrofitted vehicles and prototype vehicles, there is a need to better characterise the actual emissions of GPF-equipped GDI vehicles. In the present study we investigate one of the first mass production vehicles with GPF available in the European market. Regulated and non-regulated pollutants were measured over different test cycles and ambient temperatures (23 °C and −7 °C) in the laboratory and different on-road routes driven normally or dynamically and up to 1100 m altitude. The results showed that the vehicle respected all applicable limits. However, under certain conditions high emissions of some pollutants were measured (total hydrocarbons emissions at −7 °C, high CO during dynamic RDE tests and high NOx emissions in one dynamic RDE test). The particle number emissions, even including those below 23 nm, were lower than 6 × 1010 particles/km under all laboratory test cycles and on-road routes, which are <10% of the current laboratory limit (6 × 1011 particles/km).