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The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
In this study typical figures for fuel consumption (FC), CO2 and CO2-equivalent emissions as well as energy consumption of current and future propulsion and fuel configurations for heavy duty vehicles (HDV) have been assessed. This report covers the Tank-to-Wheels (TTW) part of a comprehensive Well-to-Wheel (WTW) analysis. The parts of the study related to Well-to-Tank (WTT) analysis and to integrated WTW view are published in separate reports. ● The following two HDV configurations have been analysed: ● Rigid truck with 18 tons gross vehicle mass rating (GVMR) designed for use in regional delivery mission (“group 4 vehicle”) ● Tractor-semitrailer combination with 40 tons GVMR designed for use in long haul mission (“group 5 vehicle”) The analysed HDV configurations are either driven with a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) or an electrified propulsion system (xEV). ICE only configurations include the technologies: ● Direct Injection Compression Ignition (CI) ● Port Injection Positive Ignition (PI) ● LNG High Pressure Direct Injection Compression Ignition (HPDI) For CI engines the fuels Diesel B0, B7 and B100 (FAME) as well as DME, ED95, OME and Paraffinic Diesel were considered. For PI engines CNG and LNG were analysed. The electrified propulsion systems include: ● Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) ● Battery electric vehicle (BEV) ● Catenary electric vehicle (CEV) ● Hydrogen/Fuel cell (FCEV) All considered vehicle concepts have been analysed for the model years 2016 and 2025, whereby 2016 models are representing the state of the art on the European market for the individual application purpose. Vehicle specifications for 2025 are based on a technology assessment of future improvements. For xEV concepts the it is at the moment not possible to identify typical vehicle configurations as the these systems are currently a new technology under development for HDV. As a consequence xEV vehicle specifications and related results as elaborated in the present study shall been understood as examples for these new technologies. Simulation of vehicles which are driven by an ICE only have been performed with the software Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation tool (VECTO), the tool which is also used for the CO2 certification of HDV in the EU. Electrified propulsion systems have been simulated with the model PHEM as these propulsion concepts are not covered in the current VECTO version. Figure 1 and Figure 2 give a summary on the results on transport specific figures (i.e. per tonne-kilometre) for energy consumption and TTW CO2-equivalent emissions. The main conclusions on the comparison of different propulsion systems drawn from these results are given in chapter 7 of this report.