EU Science Hub

JEC Tank-to-Wheel report v5: Passenger cars


The study of current and future automotive powertrains and associated fuels in the European market consists of two parts: First, the issues related to fuel production and provision are covered in the Well-to-Tank report (WTT) of the study, and second the Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) report describes the final use of the various fuels and corresponding powertrain options. The Well-to-Wheels (WTW) report finally provides the integrated view of the relative merits of the wide range of options studied. The Tank-to-Wheel study described in this report includes several different fuel–powertrain configurations for conventional (i.e. “ICE-only”) as well as electrified (i.e. “xEV”) powertrain variants. These variants are considered for 2015 (including technologies in the market in the years 2013 up to 2017) to represent the current state-of-the-art in automotive industry and for 2025+ (to give an outlook on the future technical development of passenger cars) based upon the likely market-average technology development expected by EUCAR and AVL experts. All fuel–powertrain configurations are investigated for fuel consumption, electric energy consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission based on the homologation test cycle. In case of 2015 variants, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is evaluated, whereas in case of 2025+ variants the Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) is investigated. The study is founded on a generic C-segment vehicle as an average market reference. All conventional or xEV variants are derived from this reference based on protection of pre-defined vehicle performance criteria. The xEV variants include definitions of appropriate powertrain typologies and system architectures, educated estimations of Hybrid functionalities and operational strategies, and powertrain components including optimized layout and a proper mass balance. For detailed investigation, all variants are modelled in the system simulation tool AVL CRUISE. Data, models and strategies have been discussed and mutually agreed between the EUCAR Task Force and AVL to ensure a high quality of results. It should be noted that all investigated powertrain variants only represent theoretical vehicle configurations and do not correlate to any existing vehicle or brand. However, the definitions made try to ensure, that the investigated powertrain variants provide a representative overview about today and expected future automotive technologies and their impact on GHG emissions in European C-segment passenger cars.