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The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
Artificial intelligence has entered into the sphere of creativity and ingenuity. Recent headlines refer to paintings produced by machines, music performed or composed by algorithms or drugs discovered by computer programs. This paper discusses the possible implications of the development and adoption of this new technology in the intellectual property framework and presents the opinions expressed by practitioners and legal scholars in recent publications. The literature review, although not intended to be exhaustive, reveals a series of questions that call for further reflection. These concern the protection of artificial intelligence by intellectual property, the use of data to feed algorithms, the protection of the results generated by intelligent machines as well as the relationship between ethical requirements of transparency and explainability and the interests of rights holders.