Since nanoparticles (NPs) can translocate to the brain and impact the highly vulnerable central nervous system (CNS), novel in vitro tools for the assessment of NP-induced neurotoxicity are advocated. In this study, two types of CNS spheroids have been developed from human D384 astrocyte- and SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells, and optimized in combination with standard assays (viability readout and cell morphology) to test neurotoxic effects caused by Fe3O4NPs, as NP-model, after short- (24–48 h; 1–100µg/ml) and long-term repeated exposure (30days; 0.1–25µg/ml). Short-term exposure of 3D-spheroids to Fe3O4NP induced cytotoxicity at 10 µg/mL in astrocytes and 25 µg/mL neurons. After long-term repeated dose regimen, spheroids showed concentration- and time-dependent cell mortality at 10 µg/mL for D384 and 0.5 µg/mL for SH-SY5Y, indicating a higher susceptibility of neurons than astrocytes. Both spheroid types displayed cell disaggregation after the first week of treatment at ≥0.1 µg/mL and becoming considerably evident at higher concentrations and over time. Recreating the 3D-spatial environment of the CNS allows cells to behave in vitro more closely to the in vivo situations, therefore providing a model that can be used as a stand-alone test or as a part of integrated testing strategies. These models could drive an improvement in the species-relevant predictivity of toxicity testing.