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A generalized component efficiency and input-data generation model for creating fleet-representative vehicle simulation cases in VECTO

The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used for the official calculation and reporting of CO2 emissions of HDVs in Europe. It uses certified input data in the form of energy or torque loss maps of driveline components and engine fuel consumption maps. Such data are proprietary and are not disclosed. Any further analysis of the fleet performance and CO2 emissions evolution using VECTO would require generic inputs or reconstructing realistic component input data. The current study attempts to address this issue by developing a process that would create VECTO input files based as much as possible on publicly available data. The core of the process is a series of models that calculate the vehicle component efficiency maps and produce the necessary VECTO input data. The process was applied to generate vehicle input files for rigid trucks and tractor-trailers of HDV Classes 4, 5, 9 and 10. Subsequently, evaluating the accuracy of the process, the simulation results were compared with reference VECTO results supplied by various vehicle manufacturers. The results showed that the difference between simulated and reference CO2 emissions was on average -0.6% in the Long Haul cycle and 1% in the Regional Delivery. Such a process could be a powerful tool for calculating HDV CO2 emissions for development and analysis purposes, e.g. for new vehicle prototypes or multistage vehicles, and for creating VECTO equivalent models that can be used to assess alternative operating conditions and mission profiles of existing vehicle models. The methodology was applied for creating input of various components in the US tool for HDV certification, GEM, for generic sample-vehicle models available.