This report generates estimates for the effect of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on trade unit values. Adding to the latest development of the NTM analysis, we account for different types of NTMs for pairs of countries/regions. Our estimates thus provide new insights about the bilaterally distinct effect of specific NTMs. This is particularly interesting for policy makers that like to know which types of measures are relevant for trade from or to specific countries/regions and whether they are trade-hampering or trade-facilitating.
We elaborate on the estimation of the price effect (measured in trade unit values) vis-à-vis the standard gravity on trade quantities (measured in trade value). A panel dataset (2012-2015) using the last releases of trade unit values (Berthou & Emlinger, 2011) and UNCTAD NTMs global database is built, and alternative approaches to account for the distinct bilateral impact are tested on beef, white meat (poultry) and milk. The focus is on trade between the EU member states and relevant regions with which the EU is negotiating or has just completed trade agreements: MERCOSUR, ASEAN, Japan and New Zealand.
In this report, we do not implement the specific Ad-valorem equivalents (AVE) estimates for NTMs in a simulation model but rather provide a literature review that elaborates on the different approaches to depict NTMs in simulation models. The next step would be the application of the AVEs estimated in a simulation model in order to gauge the economy-wide effects of the respective NTMs under review.