We are doing science for policy
The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
The JEC research partners [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, EUCAR and CONCAWE] have updated their joint evaluation of the well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for a wide range of potential future fuel and powertrain options. This document reports on the fourth release of this study replacing Version 3c published in July 2011. The original version was published in December 2003.