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TANK-TO-WHEELS report version 4.a : WELL-TO-WHEELS ANALYSIS OF FUTURE AUTOMOTIVE FUELS AND POWERTRAINS IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

Abstract: 
The JEC research partners [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, EUCAR and CONCAWE] have updated their joint evaluation of the tank-to-wheels (TTW) energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for a wide range of potential future fuel and powertrain options. This document is a revision of the fourth release of this study released in July 2013. The original version was published in December 2003.