Mental health is increasingly being recognized as fundamental to EU health policy. The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the evidence base supporting psychotherapeutic treatments for mental illness, and to explore their role in the treatment of mental illness in Europe. It is apparent that robust evidence supports the use of psychotherapy as a treatment for various common mental disorders. However, availability of psychotherapy is limited and varies greatly across countries. Remarkable heterogeneity exists further with respect to training of professionals and provision of psychotherapy by the public health system. Thus, there may be scope for a systematic comparison of national concepts of psychotherapy across Europe.