As the recent situation on world food markets has been increasingly volatile and has been associated with relatively higher food prices, contributing to demonstrations and riots across the world, Russia's agriculture has attracted much attention from economists, experts and policy-makers because they believe that the country could become the world's largest and most reliable grain producer and exporter. In that context, the aim of this report is to evaluate the role of the Russian Federation towards fulfilling domestic food security and more importantly global food security in the short and medium run. In particular, the study aims at examining if Russian farms could substantially increase further their respective output and export levels. The methodology followed in this report is a bottom-up approach, i.e. going from the farm (i.e. microeconomic level) to the food market (i.e. macroeconomic level), that explicitly considers the analysis of food security at the farm level and therefore complements well other works which study the agri-food sector in Russia at a more aggregated level. The perspective of the report is made possible by the use of a wide range of farm-level databases that are, for most, only available to Russian researchers and allow going into a more disaggregated and detailed level of analysis.