EU Science Hub

MARS Bulletin Vol. 20 No. 1

There were milder than usual thermal conditions over most of Europe, providing favourable conditions for the development and wintering of all winter crops. Frost events were less frequent than usual. Precipitation exceeded the average by far in the western part of Europe and in the Aegean region. It was seasonal in eastern Europe, but significantly below the norm in Spain, Portugal and Morocco. The analysis of winter kill indices indicates no or little damage so far.