This report describes the full life cycle of the measurement comparison of 137Cs in air filters among 43 European laboratories monitoring radioactivity in the environment. Gravimetrically pipetting droplets of a gravimetrically diluted standardised 137Cs solution onto real air filters, SI-traceable reference values were established for intercomparison filters carrying a large range of activity close to the routine measurement conditions of the corresponding laboratory. The sample preparation and measurement processes applied in the participating laboratories are described and the results of the intercomparison are presented and discussed in detail. The results point at some problems of radioactivity measurement in air filters which need to be improved by several laboratories. Overall, with 41 out of 48 reported measurement results lying within +/- 33 % of the IRMM reference value, this comparison renders a rather fair result.