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The Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document (BREF) for Waste Incineration is part of a series of documents presenting the results of an exchange of information between EU Member States, the industries concerned, non-governmental organisations promoting environmental protection, and the Commission, to draw up, review and – where necessary – update BAT reference documents as required by Article 13(1) of Directive 2010/75/EU on Industrial Emissions (the Directive). This document ispublished by the European Commission pursuant to Article 13(6) of the Directive. The BREF for Waste Incineration covers the disposal or recovery of waste in waste incineration plants and waste co-incineration plants, and the disposal or recovery of waste involving the treatment of slags and/or bottom ashes from the incineration of waste. Important issues for the implementation of Directive 2010/75/EU in the waste incineration (WI) sector include emissions to air, emissions to water, and the efficiency of the recovery of energy and of materials from the waste. Chapter 1 provides general information on the WI sector. Chapter 2 provides information on the common processes and general techniques that are applied across the WI sector for: the pre-treatment, storage and handling of different types of waste; the thermal treatment; energy recovery; flue-gas cleaning; waste water treatment; and the treatment of solid residues. Chapter 3 reports the current ranges of the emission and consumption levels reported in the WI sector. Techniques to consider in the determination of BAT (i.e. techniques that are widely applied in the WI sector) are reported in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 presents the BAT conclusions as defined in Article 3(12) of the Directive. Chapter 6 presents information on 'emerging techniques' as defined in Article 3(14) of the Directive. Chapter 7 contains concluding remarks and recommendations for future work.