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Assessment of 10-nm Particle Number (PN) Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for Future Regulations

Abstract: 

The particle number (PN) emissions of vehicles equipped with particulate filters are low. However, there are technologies that can have high PN levels, especially below the currently lower regulated particle size of 23 nm. Sub-23-nm particles are also considered at least as dangerous as the larger ultrafine particles. For this reason, the European Union (EU) is planning to regulate particles down to 10 nm. In this study we compared prototype portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and reference laboratory systems measuring from 10 nm. The tests included cycles and constant speeds, using vehicles fuelled with diesel, gasoline or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The results showed that the PEMS were within ±40% of the reference systems connected to the tailpipe and the dilution tunnel. Based on the positive findings and the detection efficiencies of the prototype instruments, a proposal for the technical specifications for the future regulation was drafted.