Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

Abstract: 

Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment and climate dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated on-line according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5 ?C warming would increase emissions by 42%(28%-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65(45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132(89-179) Tg by 2100.

Authors
Authors: 
RIDDICK Stuart, REIS S., SUTTON Mark, PINDER Rob, PERSONNE E., HORVATH L, FOWLER D., SIMPSON David, WICHINK-KRUIT R., FLECHARD C, TANG Y.S., NEMITZ E., GEELS Camilla, WALKER John, DORE Tony, LOUBET B., VIENO Massimo, WANLESS Sarah, BRABAN Cf, BLEEKER Albert, HERTEL O, CELLIER P., CLERBAUX Cathy, SKJOTH Carste Ambelas, BLACKALL Trevor D., DENTENER Franciscus, MISSELBROOK T., BASH Jesse O., MITCHELL Robert F, DAUNT Francis, MASSAD Raia, MILFORD Celia, DRAGOSITS U., VAN DAMME Martin, CLARISSE Lieven, THEOBALD M.R., NGADI Yasmine, COHEUR Pierre-Francois, DE VRIES W.
Publication Year
Publication Year: 
2013
Type

Type:

Appears in Collections
Appears in Collections: 
Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Science Areas
JRC Institutes
IES
Publisher
Publisher: 
ROYAL SOC
ISSN
ISSN: 
0080-4622
Citation
Citation: 
PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES p. 20130166 no. 1621 vol. 368