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Superresolution Enhancement of Hyperspectral CHRIS/Proba Images With a Thin-Plate Spline Nonrigid Transform Model

Abstract: 
Given the hyperspectral-oriented waveband configuration of multiangular CHRIS/Proba imagery, the scope of its application could widen if the present 18-m resolution would be improved. The multiangular images of CHRIS could be used as input for superresolution (SR) image reconstruction. A critical procedure in SR is an accurate registration of the low-resolution images. Conventional methods based on affine transformation may not be effective given the local geometric distortion in high off-nadir angular images. This paper examines the use of a non-rigid transform to improve the result of a nonuniform interpolation and deconvolution SR method. A scale-invariant feature transform is used to collect control points (CPs). To ensure the quality of CPs, a rigorous screening procedure is designed: 1) an ambiguity test; 2) the m-estimator sample consensus method; and 3) an iterative method using statistical characteristics of the distribution of random errors. A thin-plate spline (TPS) nonrigid transform is then used for the registration. The proposed registration method is examined with a Delaunay triangulation-based nonuniform interpolation and reconstruction SR method. Our results show that the TPS nonrigid transform allows accurate registration of angular images. SR results obtained from simulated LR images are evaluated using three quantitative measures, namely, relative mean-square error, structural similarity, and edge stability. Compared to the SR methods that use an affine transform, our proposed method performs better with all three evaluation measures. With a higher level of spatial detail, SR-enhanced CHRIS images might be more effective than the original data in various applications.