Following more than 20 years of civil unrest, environmental information for Southern Somalia is scarce while there is clear evidence that the war economy fuelled by the conflict is rapidly depleting the country's natural resources and especially the woody biomass. Wood charcoal production is one of the most relevant businessessupporting war regimes such as the extreme Islamist group Al Shabaab, which has ruled in Southern Somalia from 2006 to 2012 and is still occupying large areas.
In this study we map and quantify the tree loss suffered by the region due to the rapid increase in illegal charcoal production and export over recent years. Very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery is used to visually count charcoal production sites as a proxy of tree loss in two sample areas within the lower Juba region of Southern Somalia. The image interpretation allows mapping thecharcoal production sites as well as estimating tree loss rates above 7% over 5 years. The results are crucial forunderstanding the exact dimension and effects of the loss of woody biomass and for planning conservationand recovery interventions in the concerned area.