We are doing science for policy
The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.
The well-to-wheels analyses by JEC pursue the objectives of estimating:
of a wide range of automotive fuels and power-trains options significant for Europe in 2020 and beyond.
The outcome serves as a sound and broadly accepted scientific reference.
The methodology and data-set developed to provide a basis for the evaluation of pathways needs updating keeping pace with technological development and innovation.
A shift to renewable/low fossil carbon routes may offer a significant GHG reduction potential but generally requires more energy -->The specific pathway is critical.
A shift to renewable/low carbon sources is expensive: GHG emission reductions always entail costs but high cost does not always result in large GHG reductions
No single fuel pathway offers a short term route to high volumes of “low carbon” fuel
There is a range of options for vehicles designed to use grid electricity. While electric propulsion in the vehicle is efficient, the overall energy use and GHG emissions depend crucially on the source used to produce electricity.
The GHG emissions reduction potential of hydrogen routes is critically dependent on fuel cell vehicles achieving their expected efficiency
Transport applications may not maximize the GHG reduction potential of renewable energies
Results need to be further evaluated in the context of volume potential, feasibility, practicability, costs, and customer acceptance of the pathways investigated.
The JEC well-to wheels analysis provides a technology and policy-neutral methodology to grasp the implications and issues at stake with each technological pathway by considering performance with regard to both greenhouse gas emissions reduction and energy efficiency enhancement.